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42 Cards in this Set

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Echinococcus granulosus
dog tapeworm; tiny-3 proglottids; dogs get it from contaminated raw livestock; eggs pass through dog fec3es; humans get hydatid cysts by ingesting eggs- affects brain, lungs, liver; cysts fluid filled, contain many larvae and get big
Taenia solidum
pork tapeworm; DH-humams; IH pork; get it by eatting undercooked contaminated pork; humans can serve as IH; can cause cerebral cysticercosis
Giardia lamblia
mastigaphoran; parasitizes humans (dogs, beavers, muskrats); causes foul smelling explosive diarrhea; forms cysts; self limiting--> filter water before you drink it
Trichomonas vagalis
mastigaphoran; causes vulvovaginitis; STD called Trich; white discharge and itching; no cysts
Toxoplasma gondii
phylum apicomplexa; cat parasite; humans, cattle, etc can be IH; congenital toxoplasmosis; serious in AIDS patients
Crytosporidium
form cysts; cause enteritis and diarrhea; can get in water supply; chlorine resistant (boil water for at least 1 min or use fine filter) no treatment, threat to AIDS patients
Naegleria fowleri
free living normally; can cause amebic meningoencephalitis; very high mortality rate; warm stagnate water best environment (tolerate chlorine); don't get water up your nose
Entomoeba histolytica
LI of humans; pathogenic strains can cause amebic dysentary; cysts pass through feces and transmitted through contaminated water, food and certain practices; worldwide distribution
Trypansoma gambiense
mastigaphoran; infects blood and tissue fluids; causes African sleeping sickness--> can lead to loss of consciousness and death if infects CNS; Tsetse fly is a vector
Trichella spiralis
widespread distribution; fatal cases common among those who eat undercooked bear, wild pig, dog, walrus- any wild animal;
Ascaris
human intestinal roundworms; distrubition: cosmopolitan; pathogenisis- alergic response, malnutrition, intesinal blockage, psychological trauma from wandering worms
Enterobius vermicularis
human pinworm; LI of humans; very common, even in clean environments; asymptomatic to irritable with perianal pain, loos of appetite
Penicillium
Conidiospores form long chains on branching conidiospores, resulting in a bruch like structure P. notastum produces penicillin; P. roqueforti is used to make roquefort cheese
Candida albicans
part of normal flora; opportunistic; overgrowth occurs when immune system is compromised or balance is upset; vaginal, cutaneous, intestinal yeast infections, thrush; infection can become systemic
Trichophyton
causes athletes foot , ringworm etc
Pneumoocystis carinii
microscopic fungus; Pneumocystis pneumonia; one of the most common infections in immunosuppressed paitents with AIDS; spread in respiratory droplets; steriod treatment, organ transplantation and cancer predispose to P.c. infection also
Cyrtococcus
yeast cell surrounded by capsule; can cause fatal menigitis; transmission- inhalation of contaimated dust from bird species found in 8% of ALDS patients
General Charateristics of Fungi
nonmotile; heterotropic; prefer more acidic conditions than most bacteria; can tolerate higher osmotic pressure and lower moisture than bacteria; larger than bacteria; more cellular and morphological detail; cannot tolerate high temperature; fungal spores not as resistant; most aerobic- some faculative anerabes; decomposers; some parasites;
saprophytes
obtain nutrients by breaking down dead and decaying matter
yeast
nonfilamentous unicellular; produce asexually by budding; reproduce sexually by producing various kinds of spores; aerobic or facultative anaerobes used to make bread, wine, beer, etc; some can be pathogenic
molds
filamentous, multicellular; have mycelium; have reproductive hyphae which produce different kinds of spores
mycellium
large vegatative structure of fungi;
hyphae
rigid branched tube like filament that encloses mycelium can be coenocytic or have septa
dimorphic fungi
those that swithc between yeast and mold phase; discovered by Pasteur; cause of switch- when oxygen supply decreases, pathogenic mold outside of host and yeast inside host; dimophism makes it easier for fungus to cause a systemic infection
mycosis
fungal infections; superficial, subcutaneous or systemic (vaginal yeast infections, athletes foot, farmers lung)
mycotoxicoses
produce toxins that cause disease
3 basic shapes of viral capsid
helical- proteins fit together like a spiral, rod-shaped structure
polyhedral-proteins arranged in equilateral triangles to form a dome shaped structure, some look like spherical
complex-combination viruses have helical portion (tail) attached to a polyhedral portion(head)
viral envelopes-what they are made from
viral envelopes are actually from the host PM; when some viruses emerge from host cell, they wrap themselves in a portion of the PM; glycoprotein spikes from host cell's glycocalyx may stick out of the envelope
How can viral envelope be advantageous to soem degree?
may allow virus to hide from immune cells and to infect new cells by fusion of envelope with another cell plasma membrane
What determines the specificity of viruses for their hosts and for specific cell types
viruses exhibit considerable specificity for hosts and for cell types; specificity determined by whether or not a virus can attach to a cell; attachement depends on presence of specific receptor site on host cell surface and specific attachement sturctures on viral capsid or envelope
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacterial cells
cytoplasmic effect (CPE)
A visable effect on a host cell caused by a virus that my result in host cell damage or death
capsomere
a protein subunit of viral capsid
viron
complete viral particle
viroid
circular molecule of ssRNA without a capsid; plant pathogens; 1/10th the size of normal plant viruses; how it causes disease is a mystery
prions
protein particle with no nucleic acid, no evelope, no capsid (ex: CJC, mad cow disease, scrapie of sheep)
lysogeny
when the bacteriophage can insert its DNA into bacterial host genome
naked virus
has no viral envelope
prophage
phage DNA inserted into the host cell's DNA
oncogenic
a virus that is capable of producing tumors
provirus
viral DNA that is integrated into the host cell's DNA
Name three methods of cultivating animal viruses in the lab
1) embroyonic chicken eggs 2)mokey kidney cells 3)