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15 Cards in this Set

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July Monarchy
1. 1830-1848
2. liberal constitutional monarchy under King Louis-Philippe, house of Orleans.
3. “bourgeois king”, reachieve the liberalism by reinstating charter and expanding franchise.
4. Under pressure from conservatives and liberals; lack of legitimacy
5. After February revolution, a campaign against Guizot govt, LP abdicate.
Second Republic
1. After LP abdicates, on Feb 1848, provisional govt was organized.
2. Liberal regime: Universal male suffrage was enacted on March; slavery abolished.
3. But difficulty is leadership, deep gap between right and left. Election in April shows conservative majority and Louis Napoleon was elected president in November;
4. initiates conservative crackdown: Universal male suffrage revoked in May 1850; Assembly dissolved in December 1851.
5. Dismantled by 1952 when LN declared himself as king.
Leopold II
1. Belgium’s King Leopold II, the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State.
2. establishes a “personal plantation”; Slave labor used to generate income and his harsh regime was responsible for the death of millions of people.
3. Guns and alcohol (self-pity; living in hypocrisy) go in; rubber goes out.
4. The Powers at the Berlin Conference in its final Act in 1885, committed the State to improving the lives of the inhabitants. However, Leopold essentially ignored these conditions and ran the Congo brutally, using a mercenary force, for his own personal gain. He extracted a fortune from the Congo, initially by the collection of ivory, and after a rise in the price of rubber in the 1890s.
Berlin Congress
1. 1884-1885
2. set ground rules of imperial contest.
3. Only “effective occupation” warrants international recognition: powers could hold colonies only if they actually possessed them: in other words, if they had treaties with local leaders, if they flew their flag there, and if they established an administration in the territory to govern it with a police force to keep order.
White Man’s Burden
1. 1899 by English poet Rudyard Kipling
2. a characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise
3. At face value it appears to be a rhetorical command to white men to colonize and rule other nations for the benefit of those people
4. Non-Christian and not self-sufficient.
Fukuzawa Yukichi
1. Japanese westernizers during Japan’s late-19th century rush to catch up with the West.
2. In “Goodbye Asia” (1885), he describes the spread of Western civilization in Japan and suggest that one must imitate western society, especially the industrialized pattern. It is time to abandon the tradition, feudalism and accept capitalism.
3. 疾病论: “the movement of a civilization is like the spread of measles. We may hate the spread of this communicable disease, but is there any effective way of preventing it? A wise man encourages the spread and allows our people to get used to this ways.”
4. 脱亚入欧论: “we do not have time to wait for the enlightenment of our neighbors so that we can work together toward the development of Asia. It is better to leave the ranks of Asian nations and cast our lot with civilized nations of the West.”
Otto von Bismarck
1. Iron chancellor
2. Unified German states into German Empire under Prussian leadership and with the idea of Germany need to gain power asap, he looked to secure power without arousing suspicion of his rivals.
3. partners with A-H (kinship) (1879); Italy joins in 1882. Represent the center blocs in the center of Europe. Partnership with AH is a alarming to other European powers.
4. Reassurance Treaty (1887), which effective to quiet the alarm but fails to last long.
5. Was removed by Kaiser (Emperor) William II in 1890.
Reassurance Treaty
1. 1887
2. German’s partnership with AH in 1879 threat Russia bc Balkans.
3. Bismarck offers a secret reassurance treaty, stating that the partnership with AH is not aim at Russia. So if Russia are in conflict with AH, Germany will remain in neutral. Effectively quiet the alarm but fails to last long.
4. Kaiser Wilhelm II dismisses Bismarck in 1890, cancels Reassurance Treaty, which led Russian and France form an alliance in 1891.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
1. Archduke of Austria-Este (1889-1914)
2. assassinated by Serb nationalist, Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo June 28, 1914.
3. A-H sends 48-hour ultimatum to Serbia on July 23; Serbs comply, but A-H still declares war on July 28, 1914.
4. Trigger WWI
Fashoda Affair
1. Skirmish (mini war) fought between British and French over Sudan in 1898.
2. A French expedition to Fashoda on the White Nile sought to gain control of the Nile River and thereby force Britain out of Egypt. The British held firm as Britain and France were on the verge of war. It ended in a diplomatic victory for the British.
3. Set the tone for WWI
Triple Alliance
1. Germany partners w/ Austria-Hungary (1879)
2. Italy joins in 1882
The Entente
1. France and Russia ally (1891) because Kaiser Wilhelm II dismisses Bismarck in 1890, cancels Reassurance Treaty.
2. England joins in 1904 after the attempt of isolation because of German industrialization and militarization → Triple Entente
Scramble for Africa
1. GB, FR, GER, AH, Russia divide African territory between 1881 and 1914.
2. Europe controls only ten percent of Africa in 1878; By 1900, only Liberia and Ethiopia remain free; Imperialism leads to penetration of the “Dark Continent.”
Boer War (1899)
• The Second War (1899–1902), by contrast, was a lengthy war—involving large numbers of troops from many British possessions, which ended with the conversion of the Boer republics into British colonies (with a promise of limited zelf-bestuur). These colonies later formed part of the Union of South Africa. The British fought directly against the Transvaal and the Oranje Vrijstaat, defeating their forces first in open warfare and then in a long and bitter guerrilla campaign. British losses were high due to both disease and combat.
Opium War (1840-42)
• Europeans work to overcome Chinese isolation during 19th century. British controlled drug trafficking leads to Opium War (1839-42).
• Chinese officials wished to stop what was perceived as an outflow of silver and to control the spread of opium, and confiscated supplies of opium from British traders. The British government, although not officially denying China's right to control imports, objected to this seizure and used its newly developed military power to enforce violent redress.