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36 Cards in this Set

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absolutism
term applied to strong centralized continental monarchies that attmpted to make royal power dominant over aristocracies and other regional authorities
parliamentary monarchy
the form of limited or constitutional monarchy set up in Britain after the Glorious Revolution of 1689 in which the monarch was subject to the law and ruled by the consent of parliament
Puritans
English Protestants who sought to "purify" the Church of England of any vestiges of Catholicism
Glorious Revolution
the largely peaceful replacement of James II by William and Mary as English monarchs in 1688. It marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in Britain
intendants
royal officials under the French monarchy who supervised the provincial governments in the name of the kings
Fronde
a series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652
Jansenism
A seventeenth-centuy movement within the Catholic Church that taught that human beings were so corrupted by original sin that they could do nothing good nor secure their own salvation without divine grace (opposed to Jesuits)
mercantilism
term used to describe close government control of the economy that sought to maximize exports and accumulate as much precious metals as possible to enable the state to defend its economic and political interests
parlement
French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobility. THe most important was the Parlement of Parism which calimed the right ot register royal decrees before they could become law
millets
administrative units of the Ottoman Empire that were not geographic but consisted of ethnic or religious minorities to whom particular laws and regulations applied
Pragmatic Sanction
the legal basis negotiated by the Emperor CHarls VI for the Habsburg succession through his daughter Maria Theresa
empiricism
the use of experiment and observation derived from sensory evidence to construct scientific theory or philosophy of knowledge
Hampton Court Conference
a meeting in 1604 between King James I of England and representatives of the Church of England. it produced the Bible known as the 'authorized version' - King James Version
Gunpowder Plot
1605- plot to blow up Parliament and the king while in session
Petition of Right
-the king cannot levy taxes or collect money without Parliaments consent
-the king cannot quarter soldiers in private homes w/out consent
Charles signs- but doesn't intend to abide by it
Short Parliament
when a Scottish revolt occurs against Laud's Anglican Prayer Book, Charles needs money to suppress it. He calls parliament in april- they insit he acknowledge their athority- he refuses, dissolves parliament in may
Long Parliament
(1640-1653) Charles is defeated by Scots- they levy 850euros/day for payment- he needs $ more than ever. calls parliament in October, it is dominated by Charles' opponents
Battle of Marston Moor
major victory for parliament- King Charles is taken prisoner, but he manages to escape and make an army again. he is defeated again by Parliament
New Model Army
created by Oliver Cromwell, it was based on person's ability, not rank/class. key to success was horses (lightly armed cavalry)
Pride's Purge
Pride was one of Charles' generals. C instructs him to not let anyone in to Parliament who will vote for Charles's death
Clarendon Code
a series of laws between 1661-1665 by Parliament that excluded Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, and Independents from the religious and political life of the nation. imposed penalties for attending non-Anglican worship services, required strict adherence to 'Book of Common Prayer', '39 Articles', & demanded oaths of allegiance to the Church from all persons seving in local gov.
Act of Settlement
since 1701 has regulated the succession to the throne of England. It also decreed that future monarchs must belong to the Church of England, that judges were to hold office on the basis of good behaviour rather than at the sovereign's pleasure, and that impeachment by the House of Commons was not subject to pardon by the sovereign.
Divine Right of Kings
a monarch derives his right to rule from God. Chosen by God, a monarch is accountable only to Him, and need answer only before God for his actions. Louis XIV thoroughly promoted this
War of Devolution
Louis XIV's French armies overrun the Habsburg controlled Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comte, but is forced to give it back by triple alliance of England, Sweden, and Dutch Republic
Versailles
built by Louis XIV, he brought all his nobles so he could watch them. kept them busy so they could not plan revolts. dress-codes nad high-stakes gambling kept them indebted to and dependent on the king
Nine Years War
long, extraordinarily destructive. ended when stalemate and exhaustion forced both sides to accept and interim settlement.
War of the Spanish Succession
Louis was afraid Habsburgs would dominate Europe if they gained control of Spain, others wanted to preserve balance of power. France for 1st time had inadequate finances, a poorly equipped army,& mediocre generals. England had advanced weaponry&superior tactics- Eng. won b/c French internal failure
Peace of Utrecht
France signed an armistice with England in July 1713, after War of Spanish Succession
Dutch East India Company
trades spices-founded by Dutch in India. had ability to wage war, negotiatie treaties, coin money, & establish colonies. very impt trading concern for almost 2 centurys
Mississippi Bubble
as stock became popular, a MS company formed. stock sold quickly, & French gov. bought lots of stock to fix debt. but company crashed, lost all money, so French gov. was still in debt, more
whigs
oppose the Catholic succcession; support parliament over the king
tories
support James' succession; generally support the monarch of the Parliament
Ottoman Empire
the only non-Christian power in Europe in 17th century - Muslim. beginning to decay- overextended territorially, corrupt local rulers begin to defy sultan, russia&austria both try to expand at Turkey's expense
janissaries
the most famous elite military unit of Ottoman empire- infantry troops
liberum veto
Poland: any member of the sejm (national assembly) could veto any act- which made it nearly impossible to administer
list 2 reasons the english civil war was fought
1) would an absolute monarchuy or a parliamentary government rule Englad?
2) would eng. re ligion be controled by the king's bishops and conform to high Anglican practice or adopt a decentralized, Presbyterian system of church gov?