Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensory memory
representation of an external stimulus after the stimulus has ended

believed to be unprocessed copies of the original stimuli which briefly reside in the sensory organs

unlimited capacity but a very short duration (no more than 2 or 3 seconds)
Prochaska and DiClemente five stages in the change process
precontemplation- when the person has little insight that there is a need for change
contemplation- the person is aware of and considering the need for change, but has not committed to it
preparation - indication of the person's clear intent to take action in the future. action- is the fourth stage Maintenance - consolidates the change and takes steps to prevent the relapse
even scatter around the regression line
Solomon four-group design
true experimental design used to evaluate the effects of pretesting, since some groups are pretested and others are not
ability of our eyes to focus on objects declines due to a loss of elasticity in the lens of the eye
typically increases the near point (the shortest distance at which we can focus) from four inches at 20 years of age to about four feet at 60 years of age
cingulate cortex
part of the limbic system
believed to play an excitatory role in emotions and in motivating behaviors satisfaction center – mediating feelings of satisfaction following eating and sex
coefficient of determination
calculated by squaring a correlation coefficient
the proportion of variability in one variable that is accounted for by variability in another variable
insecure/avoidant attachment
babies with this type of pattern often had mothers who were either very impatient and nonresponsive, or alternatively overstimulating
point-biserial coefficient
used when a dichotomous variable (e.g., gender) is correlated with continuous variable (e.g., IQ score)
biserial coefficient
correlate an artificial dichotomy with a continuous variable
Vroom and Yetton's normative model
provides a "decision tree" to help a leader determine whether an autocratic, consultative, or consensual decision-making approach is best given the nature of the work situation
Cross's (1991) Black Racial (Nigresence) Identity Development Model
Pre-encounter in which whites are seen as the ideal, while African Americans are denigrated. The second stage or Encounter stage leads to an interest in developing an African-American identity and a preference for a therapist of one's own race. The third stage (Immersion/Emersion) involves a struggle between old and emerging ideas about race. There is an initial idealization of African-Americans and a denigrating of whites. Toward the end of this stage the person becomes less emotionally immersed and moves toward internalization of a new identity. In the fourth and final stage (Internalization/Commitment), the individual adopts an African-American world view
discriminative stimulus
cue indicating some contingency (reinforcement or punishment) will occur if a particular behavior is emitted
vision/occipital lobes
peripheral vision = processed in the anterior occipital lobe
Central vision = processed in the posterior occipital lobe
Ouchi’s Theory Z
organizational management philosophy that incorporates aspects from traditional American (Theory A) and Japanese (Theory J) management philosophies. The theory represents a middle ground, for example, emphasizing long-term employment versus short-term or lifelong and a moderately specialized career path instead of specialized or nonspecialized
Edgar Schein- career anchor
A person’s career anchor is his or her self-concept consisting of self-perceived talents and abilities, basic values, motives, and needs as they pertain to the career. Schein says that people are primarily motivated by one of eight anchors — priorities that define how they see themselves and how they see their work
Bass- transformational leadership- four interrelated components
D. Bass (1985) suggested that transformational leadership contains the interrelated components of idealized or charisma influence (attributed or behavioral), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. In truly transformational leadership, high morals and ethical standards characterize charismatic or idealized influence. In research by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990), trust was found to be the single most important variable moderating the effects of transformational leadership on the performance, attitudes, and satisfaction of the followers. Inspirational motivation (b.) provides followers with meaning and challenges for engaging in undertakings and shared goals. Intellectual stimulation (a.) helps followers to question assumptions and to generate more creative solutions to problems. Individual consideration (c.) treats each follower as an individual and provides coaching, mentoring and growth opportunities.
correlational coefficient used for non-linear, or curvilinear, relationships
Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman’s Decision Making Model
defined personal authoritative reality as what feels right to the individual and common reality as what the individual is told they should do
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
lesions in the amygdala and characterized by reduced fear and aggression, increased acquiescence, and hypersexuality
Solomon, Pyszczynski, and Greenberg’s terror management theory
individuals utilize two things to manage the terror associated with the fear of death: a cultural worldview and self-esteem
"low-LPC" leaders
most effective in very favorable and very unfavorable situations

task oriented
method of loci
pair images of objects you want to remember with places you are familiar with
Driver, Broussseau, and Hunsaker
decision-making styles
The five types are: Decisive, Flexible, Hierarchic, Integrative, and Systemic. The Decisive is fast, efficient, and relies on a minimal amount of information (i.e., a satisficer) and a single solution. The Flexible decision-maker also moves fast and is a satisficer, but is willing to adapt and change solutions if indicated. Hierarchics rely on a lot of information (i.e., are maximizers) but stay rigidly focused on a single solution. The Integrative decision-maker relies on a lot of information (i.e., a maximizer) but pursues multiple solutions. Systemics keep their eyes on the "big picture," rely on maximum information (i.e., a maximizer), and develop a prioritized set of strategies for dealing with a situation, rather than a single solution or a collection of alternative plans.
Structural equation modeling
multivariate technique used to evaluate the causal (predictive) influences or test causal hypotheses about the relationships among a set of factors.
kappa statistic
used to evaluate inter-rater reliability, or the consistency of ratings assigned by two raters, when data are nominal or ordinal
The Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude
12 subtests and was specifically developed and standardized for deaf and hearing impaired children between the ages of 3 and 16
practicing or rehearsing beyond the level of mastery
most effective for simple tasks that must be remembered for a long period of time
identical elements
transfer of training
similarities in the learning and performance environments ("identical elements") resulted in better transfer
Donald Super
vocational development
individuals choose occupations that are consistent with their self-concept, which develops in a predictable sequence of stages

Job satisfaction and life satisfaction are both a function of the degree to which one's activities are consistent with the self-concept
item characteristic curve
associated with item response theory, are graphs that depict individual test items in terms of the percentage of individuals in different ability groups who answered the item correctly
Lewin's field theory
behavior is a function of the relationship between a person and his or her environment
B = f(P,E) where B is behavior, P is the person, and E is the environment
Gregory Herek
sexual prejudice
prognosis for autism?
early language skills and overall intellectual level
sue and sue 1991 study on ethnic matching
improves therapy outcome and reduces premature termination for Asian-American and Mexican-American clients but has less of an effect on these variables for African-American clients
eta squared
amount of variability accounted for
used as an index of effect size
The Racial Identity Attitude Scale
Helms and Parham (1996), assess the stages of African-American racial identity development
Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Minority Identity Development Model
resistance and immersion introspection
articulation and awareness
Berry's Acculturation model
separation, marginalization, assimilation, and integration

independent dimensions, rather than stages
a term used by Bowen, refers to an inability to separate intellectual from emotional functioning, or an inability to separate one's own thoughts and feelings from those of other family members
a situation in which another family member is brought into a conflict that actually exists only between two members, such as when two parents constantly try to get their child to take their side in a conflict the parents are having with each other
an alliance of two family members against a third. According to Minuchin, dysfunctional families are sometimes characterized by stable coalitions of a parent and a child against the other parent
coefficient of multiple determination
correlation coefficient like the Pearson r. However, uppercase "R" is a multiple correlation coefficient, which is used when there are multiple predictors
just noticeable difference (or difference threshold)
the smallest physical difference between two stimuli that can be recognized as a difference. Although just noticeable differences are considered to represent psychologically equal units, their corresponding physical differences are unequal
House's path-goal theory
predicts that leaders will be most successful when they show followers the path for achieving goals
a contingency theory, that proposes that the best leadership style depends on certain characteristics of the situation
a person perceives the recovery of information from memory as being an original idea of their own
Source amnesia
episodic memory disorder where source or contextual information surrounding facts are severely distorted and/or unable to be recalled
An individual remembers some factual information, yet forgets the contextual information related to the fact such as when, where, and with whom the fact was learned
Item response theory
highly technical mathematical approach to item analysis
assumptions, known as invariance of item parameters, holds that the characteristics of items should be the same for all theoretically equivalent groups of subjects chosen from the same population. Thus, any culture-free test should demonstrate such invariance; i.e., a set of items shouldn't have a different set of characteristics for minority and non-minority subgroups
theoretical basis of computer adaptive assessment, in which tests tailored to the examinee's ability level are computer generated
items measure a latent trait, such as intelligence or general ability
assumptions of item response theory only hold true for very large samples
seretonin/eating behaviors
High levels of serotonin have been linked to both appetite suppression and anxiety while low levels have been linked to depression and appear to contribute to binge eating