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44 Cards in this Set

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Adverse Impact
1. ADVERSE IMPACT: The result of discrimination against individuals protected by Title
VII and related legislation due to the use of an employment practice (e.g., selection or
placement test). When use of a selection or other employment procedure results in higher
rejection rates for such individuals than for the majority group, adverse impact is said to
exist. The "80% rule" can be used to determine if adverse impact is occurring.
2. EIGHTY PERCENT RULE: A method for determining whether or not a selection or
placement instrument is having an ADVERSE IMPACT. Applying the 80% rule involves
dividing the hiring rate for the minority group by the hiring rate for the majority group:
Adverse impact is suggested with the result is less than 80%.
Classical Management Theories
Emphasize the structure of the organization. Max Weber's (1947) BUREAUCRACY is the best known classical management theory. According to Weber, a bureaucracy is an ideal organizational structure that consists of different units that are hierarchically arranged and
that each perform a specialized function according to clearly defined rules and regulations. Therefore, his ideal structure emphasizes division of labor and delegation of responsibility. The primary advantages of a bureaucracy are its efficiency and freedom from nepotism and favoritism. Its main disadvantage is its inflexibility.
Combining Predictor Scores
See also "Predictors Used in Selection." No one predictor is likely to be completely
adequate for job selection; therefore, multiple predictors are often used. To be most useful, all the predictors should correlate highly with the criterion, but have low
correlations with each other so that each one measures a unique aspect of job
performance. The relationship between criterion scores and scores on multiple predictors
is determined by calculating a multiple correlation coefficient (R). Predictor scores can be combined by:
1. MULTIPLE REGRESSION: A statistically derived equation is used to yield a predictor score for each examinee based on his/her performance on each test in a battery. Multiple regression equations assign weights to each test score, based on the test's correlation with the criterion and with other tests in the battery.
2. MULTIPLE CUTOFF: Establishing minimum cutoff scores for each test. If an examinee is below the cutoff for even one test, she is rejected; examinees who reach or exceed the cutoff scores on all tests are accepted.
3. MULTIPLE HURDLES: Administering multiple and ordered predictors; each test is administered only after the previous one has been successfully completed or passed.
Communication Networks
"Communication networks," or the patterns of communication between people or departments in an organization, are usually categorized as being either centralized or decentralized. CENTRALIZED NETWORKS are more effective for simple tasks and are
associated with greater satisfaction for the central person only, while DECENTRALIZED NETWORKS are better for more complex tasks and are associated with greater overall levels of satisfaction.
Conformity to group Norms and Idiosyncrasy credits
1. CONFORMITY TO GROUP NORMS: Conformity to group norms is highest when the task is ambiguous or complex, when group consensus is high and when the members have
participated in setting the group norms. In addition, people high in authoritarianism and
rigidity and who have low self-esteem are more likely to conform to group norms.
2. IDIOSYNCRACY CREDITS: Positive sentiments within a group toward a member that
allow him/her to occasionally deviate from group norms. A person accumulates idiosyncracy credits when he/she has a history of conforming to norms, has contributed in some special way to the group or has served as the group leader.
Criterion Measures (Objective vs. Subjective)
A "criterion measure" is the test or other measure used to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable levels of job performance.
1. OBJECTIVE MEASURES: Measures of job performance that directly assess productivity (e.g., number of units produced, number of errors) or other job-related behaviors (absenteeism, tardiness).
2. SUBJECTIVE MEASURES: Measures of job performance or other behavior that reflect the opinion or judgment of the rater. The major problem with subjective measures is that they are susceptible to rater biases.
Standards for Evaluating Criterion Measures
Criterion measures must have acceptable levels of reliability and validity and should be feasible and acceptable to management and
employees.
1. RELIABILITY: Refers to the extent to which an employee's standing on a criterion measure is consistent over time, across different parts of the same measure, or across different raters. If a measure has low reliability, an employee's score may not reflect his/her true standing on that measure. A criterion measure's reliability can be measured in several ways; e.g., test-retest and inter-rater reliability. The latter is important for criterion measures since many are subjective measures of performance.
2. VALIDITY: Refers to the extent to which a criterion measure provides accurate information about an employee's "true" job performance. If a measure has low validity, an
employee's score on the measure provides little or no information about his/her actual level of performance. To maximize the validity of a criterion measure: (a) Its development should be based on a systematic job analysis; (b) it should be designed so that it is not affected by irrelevant factors; e.g., criterion contamination. (c) Multiple measures are usually more valid because a single measure usually does not account for all the factors that contribute to effective job performance. A criterion measure's validity is usually established through the judgment of experts. Construct validation methods are often the most appropriate.
Determing a Predictor's Validity
STEP 1: Conduct a JOB ANALYSIS, which entails identifying the skills, knowledge, etc. required for successful job performance.
STEP 2: Select/develop a predictor or combination of predictors that measure(s) the attributes identified by the job analysis.
STEP 3: Administer the predictor to a sample of job applicants (PREDICTIVE VALIDITY) or current employees (CONCURRENT VALIDITY).
STEP 4: Measure job performance; i.e., obtain criterion (job proficiency) information for all
persons included in the sample.
STEP 5: Calculate a correlation coefficient to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between predictor and criterion scores.
STEP 6: Determine if the predictor has different levels of validity for different subgroups
(DIFFERENTIAL VALIDITY) or if the predictor scores consistently underestimate the criterion scores of any subgroup (UNFAIRNESS).
STEP 7: Evaluate the INCREMENTAL VALIDITY of the predictor; i.e., determine if use of the predictor results in an increase in the proportion of correct decisions.
STEP 8: CROSS-VALIDATE the predictor, which entails performing steps 3-7 with a new sample.
Differential Validity
1. DIFFERENTIAL VALIDITY: Exists when the validity coefficient of a predictor is
significantly different for one subgroup than for another subgroup (e.g., lower for Black
applicants than White applicants).
2. UNFAIRNESS: Unfair hiring, placement or related discrimination against a minority group that occurs when members of the minority group consistently score lower on a predictor but perform approximately the same on the criterion as members of the majority group. It is a cause of adverse impact.
Fatigue, Stress, and Burnout
1. FATIGUE: Adverse effects of physical and mental fatigue include increased accident and turnover rates and lowered job proficiency, especially on complex tasks and tasks requiring vigilance. REST BREAKS may be used to reduce fatigue. They are most
effective when their schedules are empirically determined; in general, however, they should be provided during the fourth and eighth hours of work since these tend to be the times of greatest fatigue. Frequent short breaks are more effective than longer, less frequent ones.
2. AROUSAL AND BOREDOM: Highest levels of learning and performance are associated with moderate levels of arousal, especially when moderate arousal is coupled with moderate task difficulty. Excessive or inadequate arousal can lead to stress, fatigue and greater variability in job performance. Boredom (lack of arousal) can be alleviated by educating workers about the value their job, job enrichment and job rotation.
3. STRESS: Jobs that give workers very little control over their tasks or work conditions are most likely to lead to heart disease, hypertension, anxiety, depression, etc.
4. BURNOUT: Caused by accumulated stress associated with overwork. An early symptom is a sudden increase in work effort and hours without an increase in productivity.
Subsequent symptoms include lowered productivity, loss of motivation, irritability, social withdrawal and physical complaints.
Flextime and Shiftwork
1. FLEXITIME: A job scheduling technique in which employees are allowed to choose when to start and end work (within designated limits). Employees must work a full day and be present during certain "core" hours. Flexitime is associated with high levels of motivation and satisfaction and decreased absenteeism.
2. SHIFTWORK: Companies that operate 24 hours a day ordinarily divide the day into three work shifts: a regular shift, a swingshift, (3:00 to 11:00 p.m.) and a graveyard shift (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.). Some companies permanently assign employees to one shift and
others rotate their employees through the shifts. Fixed shifts are generally preferred to
rotating shifts, since the latter tend to disrupt circadian rhythms, which increases fatigue and sleepiness and causes concentration difficulties and increased errors. Of the three fixed shifts, the graveyard shift is associated with the most problems (e.g., higher accident rates, lower performance quality), apparently because of sleep deprivation. However, the
swing shift has the most negative impact on social patterns.
Group Cohesion
"Group cohesion" refers to the feeling of solidarity among group members. Cohesiveness is high in smaller groups, when initiation or entry into the group is difficult, when members are relatively homogeneous and when there is an external threat. High cohesiveness can lead to poorer decision-making in some situations (e.g., groupthink).
Group Decision Making in Organizations
This is generally superior to individual decision-making because: Including several people in the process makes a greater amount of information available; it tends to produce a greater number of alternative solutions and approaches; and participation in group
decision-making increases individual morale and understanding and acceptance of and commitment to the decisions that are made. In some situations, groups can create conditions that lead to bad decisions; e.g., see "Groupthink, Group Polarization and Risky
Shift." Brainstorming, the nominal group technique and delphi technique can be used to improve group decision-making.
1. NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE (NGT): (a) Group members brainstorm alone; (b) group
members discuss and evaluate the ideas presented by all members; (c) a secret ballot is taken in which each member ranks the proposed solutions; and (d) the idea that receives the highest ranking is taken as the group's decision.
2. DELPHI TECHNIQUE: (a) Pool the judgments of experts who respond independently and anonymously to questionnaires; (b) summarize the results; (c) return the results to the
participants for further comments; and (d) have all participants vote independently on the
various solutions or decisions.
Groupthink, Group Polarization, and Risky Shift
1. GROUPTHINK: A mode of group thinking in which group members' desires for unanimity and cohesiveness override their ability to realistically appraise or determine alternative
courses of action. Groupthink can be alleviated by encouraging dissent or having someone play devil's advocate.
2. GROUP POLARIZATION: The tendency of groups to make more extreme decisions
(either more conservative or more risky) than individual members would have made alone.
3. RISKY SHIFT PHENOMENON: The proposal that group decisions tend to be "riskier" than decisions made by individuals.
Hawthorne Studies and Effect
1. HAWTHORNE STUDIES: A series of studies originally designed to assess the effects of certain environmental factors (e.g., illumination, work breaks) on job morale and
productivity. Results indicated the influence of the "informal organization" (e.g., group norms) and social relationships on productivity and attitudes.
2. HAWTHORNE EFFECT: The concept that an intervention, regardless of its intent or content, produces a positive effect on worker motivation and/or performance when workers participate in a research study. Specifically, the performance of subjects in a
research study may change as a result of the novelty of the research situation and the special attention they are receiving. This can threaten the study's external validity.
RATIONAL-ECONOMIC MODEL and Administrative Model
1. RATIONAL-ECONOMIC MODEL: Attempts to maximize benefits by systematically
searching for the best possible solution or alternative. This model differs from other models because its goal is to consider all alternatives before choosing the optimal one. To do this successfully, the decision-maker must have complete information about all possible alternatives; however, he/she often lacks sufficient information or time to consider all alternatives.
2. ADMINISTRATIVE MODEL: Recognizes that decision-makers often exhibit "bounded
rationality" rather than perfect rationality; i.e., that they makes decisions under conditions of external and psychological constraints. A consequence of the limitations on decision-making is that decision-makers tend to "satisfice" rather than "maximize": They
consider solutions as they become available and then select the first solution that meets the minimum criteria of acceptability.
Theory A, J, and Z
A recent trend in the U.S. has been to adopt a more international perspective on
organizational management and the emphasis has been on incorporating the Japanese
approach into an American organizational philosophy. For example, Ouchi (1978)
distinguishes between Theory A (American) and Theory J (Japanese) and combines the
best aspects of each into Theory Z.
1. THEORY A CHARACTERISTICS: Short-term employment, individual decision-making,
individual responsibility, rapid evaluation and promotion, specialized career path and segmented concern.
2. THEORY J CHARACTERISTICS: Lifetime employment, consensual decision-making,
collective responsibility, slow evaluation and promotion, nonspecialized career path and holistic concern.
3. THEORY Z CHARACTERISTICS: Long-term employment, consensual decision-making,
individual responsibility, slow evaluation and promotion, moderately specialized career path and holistic concern.
Japanese Management Approach
The Japanese approach to management is often contrasted to the traditional American
approach and, in recent years, is becoming increasingly popular in America. Among other
things, the Japanese approach emphasizes collective responsibility and decision-making,
a nonspecialized career path, lifetime employment and implicit methods of control.
Job Analysis and Evaluation
JOB ANALYSIS: A process of determining how a job differs from other jobs in terms of required responsibilities, activities and skills. Job analysis is the first step in the development of a predictor or criterion and is also used for a variety of other reasons including job redesign, identifying training needs, developing a job description or job specification and determining the causes of accidents.
2. JOB EVALUATION: This term is sometimes erroneously confused with job analysis.
Although a job analysis ordinarily precedes a job evaluation, the goals of the two procedures differ. While a job analysis is performed to obtain a comprehensive description of the skills, knowledge and abilities required by a job, a job evaluation is conducted to determine the relative worth of job in order to set wages and salaries.
Job Enlargement and Enrichment
1. JOB ENLARGEMENT: A type of job redesign that involves increasing the number of tasks included in a job without increasing the worker's autonomy and responsibility.
2. JOB ENRICHMENT: A type of job redesign in which the job is made more challenging,
rewarding, etc., in order to increase job motivation and satisfaction. This method is based on Herzberg's two-factor theory.
Situational Leadership (Hersey and Blanchard), Fielder's Contigency Theory, Path-Goal Theory
1. LEADERSHIP STYLES: Research on leadership styles has either distinguished between
two key dimensions: consideration and initiating structure) or three different styles
(autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire). Each dimension and style is associated with different outcomes; e.g., the autocratic style is associated with greater productivity and the democratic style is linked with higher satisfaction (at least in some situations).
2. SITUATIONAL LEADERSH P (Hersey and Blanchard): Model of leadership that
proposes that the best leadership style depends on the maturity of the workers. As a worker's job maturity changes, so too should the leader's style.
3. FIEDLER'S CONTINGENCY THEORY: Proposes that leadership effectiveness is related to an interaction between the leader's style and the nature (favorableness) of the
situation. Low LPC leaders are most effective in unfavorable or very favorable situations;
high LPC leaders are better in moderately favorable situations.
4. PATH-GOAL THEORY: Proposes that an effective leader is one who helps employees identify and achieve personal goals through the achievement of organizational goals.
Legal Issues in Selection and Employment
1. ADVERSE IMPACT
2. DIFFERENTIAL VALIDITY
3. UNFAIRNESS:
4. BONA FIDE OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATION (BFOQ): An exception to Title VII and other anti-discrimination requirements, which occurs when discrimination is necessary for the normal operation of the business; i.e., the characteristic in question is a BFOQ.
5. EQUAL PAY AND OPPORTUNITY: (a) The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires employers to pay males and females performing the same job the same pay except in certain situations; e.g., when pay is based on seniority, merit, or quality and quantity of work. (b) Women continue to lack equal opportunity due to the persistence of stereotypes and myths; e.g., the myth that women have higher rates of illness, absenteeism and turnover persists even though research has demonstrated that, when occupational level, age and duration of employment are held constant, there are few difference between males and females on these variables.
6. SEXUAL HARASSMENT: Physical and verbal sexual harassment are prohibited by law. Courts are more likely to rule in favor of employees bringing sexual harassment suits when (a) they have been subject to more severe forms of harassment, (b) they have witnesses and (c) they informed management before taking legal action but no steps were taken to correct the situation.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A management strategy and method of performance appraisal that emphasizes the joint determination of goals for a subordinate by the subordinate and his supervisor. MBO programs are based on the assumption that workers are more motivated to achieve goals when they have participated in their development.
Managing Resistance to Organizational Change
The strategies used to induce change in organizations can be classified into three types:
1. RATIONAL-EMP RICAL STRATEGY: Based on the assumption that people are basically rational and will act in accord with their self-interest once they have been provided with
the necessary information; i.e., they will not resist change once they recognize they will benefit from it.
2. POWER-COERCIVE STRATEGY: Involves using power to coerce employees to comply
with plans for change. Coercion can take the form of either rewards or punishments.
3. NORMATIVE-REEDUCATIVE STRATEGY: Based on the assumption that peer pressure
and social norms are potent forces of change. This is supported by the finding that group discussion about the best way to make changes is an effective means for overcoming resistance to change and maximizing productivity after the change is instituted.
Motivation and Job Performance
Motivation is a causal factor in job performance, but its relationship to performance is complex and can be expressed by the following formula: Performance = f(Ability x
Motivation). This formula implies that high motivation alone does not lead to high
performance, but that a high level of job performance requires both high ability and high motivation.
Motivation Theories
1. NEED HIERARCHY: Five needs are arranged in a hierarchical order. A higher need doesn't act as a motivator until all lower needs are met.
2. NEEDS FOR ACHIEVEMENT, POWER, AFFILIATION: Research indicates that these
three needs often act as motivators in organizational settings.
3. EQUITY: Proposes that an employee's motivation is related to his/her perception that his/her input/outcome ratio is similar to that of comparison others.
4. TWO-FACTOR: According to two-factor theory, lower-level needs (hygiene factors) are satisfied by pay, security, etc. and have little effect on satisfaction and motivation, but cause dissatisfaction when they are not met. Higher-level needs (motivators) are satisfied
by challenge, recognition, etc. and increase satisfaction and motivation when they are met, but do not cause dissatisfaction when they are not met.
5. EXPECTANCY (VIE): Proposes that motivation is the result of expectancy,
instrumentality and valence. Highest motivation occurs when a person perceives that high effort results in high success (high expectancy), high success leads to goals (high instrumentality) and outcomes are desirable (positive valence).
6. GOAL-SETTING: Proposes that people are more willing to achieve goals when they
have explicitly accepted them.
Noise and Performance
Noise in the environment is one potential cause of learning and performance failures. In general, noise is most likely to adverse effects when it is intermittent, uncontrollable and unpredictable.
Older Employees
Older employees may require special consideration in selection and training due to
changes in intellectual functioning. Most research suggests that deficits in performance among older employees is more often due to declines in psychomotor skills than cognitive failures.
Organizational Development (OD): Sociotechnical Approach, Process Consultation, Quality Circle
A broad range of techniques designed to increase overall organizational effectiveness.
Most OD techniques share in common a systems approach, top management commitment,
the use of a change agent and an emphasis on people and their relationships. OD
interventions include the managerial grid, QWL interventions, process consultation and the sociotechnical approach.
1. SOCIOTECHNICAL APPROACH: Simultaneously focuses on both the social and
technical aspects of the organization and views it as basically a social system, rather than a technical system for providing goods and services.
2. PROCESS CONSULTATION: A consultant helps the members of the organization
perceive, understand and change the processes that are undermining their interactions and the organization's effectiveness.
3. QUALITY CIRCLES: Work groups meet periodically to discuss ways to improve
productivity.
Person-Machine System
The "person-machine system" is the target of most human factors interventions. From the human factors perspective, any failure in performance is due to a person-machine
mismatch.
Physical Work Environment
1. NOISE: Noise usually does not significantly affect job performance, but it does require workers to exert greater effort to maintain their performance levels. In general, noise is most likely to affect performance when it is unpredictable, unrelated to the task,
intermittent, or uncontrollable.
2. MUSIC: Background music can reduce fatigue slightly and increase performance on
routine, simple tasks.
3. ILLUMINATION: The optimal level of light intensity varies depending on the employee
and the task. For example, older employees prefer and need more light than younger
employees.
PREDICTORS USED IN SELECTION & OTHER EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS
1. STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS: Use predetermined questions to obtain information that
is related to job performance. Structured interviews are more valid than nonstructured
interviews.
2. BIBS: Self-report multiple-choice inventories used to collect biodata about applicants.
If empirically-derived, BIBs have relatively high validity.
3. PERSONALITY TESTS: More vulnerable to faking and social desirability than ability and aptitude tests and generally poorer predictors of job performance. However,
personality (and interest) tests are useful for predicting the job success of salespeople.
4. INTEREST TESTS: Useful for career/vocational counseling, but not necessarily as selection tools because they are susceptible to faking. Interest tests are more valid for predicting job choice, satisfaction and persistence than success.
5. WORK SAMPLES/SITUATIONAL TESTS: Require the person (e.g., applicant) to perform a task required by the job.
6. ASSESSMENT CENTER: May be used to evaluate applicants and employees (usually
management, administrative personnel), often to determine promotability. Techniques include interviews and SITUATIONAL TESTS; e.g., IN-BASKET in which people respond to memos, etc. like those they would encounter on the job.
Rater Biases
1. HALO EFFECT: The rater allows his/her rating of an employee on one dimension to
influence ratings of the employee on unrelated dimensions.
2. CENTRAL TENDENCY BIAS: Ratees are assigned average or middle scores on all job
performance dimensions.
3. LENIENCY/STRICTNESS BIAS: All ratees are assigned ratings that are predominantly positive (leniency) or negative (strictness).
Rating Scales
In "relative rating scales" (the first two below), a rater compares ratees. Relative scales reduce rater biases, but they are less useful than "absolute rating scales" for obtaining
information to provide ratees performance feedback.
1. FORCED DISTRIBUTION: Assigns ratees to a limited number of categories based on a predetermined normal frequency distribution on one or more performance dimensions.
2. PAIRED COMPARISON: The ratee is compared to all other ratees on all dimensions.
3. CRITICAL INCIDENT: Behaviors leading to poor and outstanding performance are identified.
4. FORCED CHOICE: The scale items include two to four alternatives that are about equal in terms of desirability. The rater selects the alternative that best or least describes a ratee.
5. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE: The rater indicates on a continuum a ratee's performance on job dimensions. A graphic rating scale is susceptible to rater biases.
6. BARS: Supervisors identify job behavior dimensions and behavioral anchors (critical
incidents) for each, order the anchors from least to most positive and then choose the behavior in each dimension that best describes the ratee. BARS increases inter-rater reliability and may reduce rater biases.
7. BOS: Similar to BARS, but a rater indicates, for each critical incident, how often a ratee engages in the behavior.
Reliability in I/O
In organizations, the degree to which a predictor, criterion or other measuring device provides consistent results across, different forms of the test, different raters, etc. Reliability is usually measured with a correlation (reliability) coefficient. In general, coefficients below .80 are considered unsatisfactory for selection purposes. Reliability is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for validity.
Satisfaction
1. DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION: High levels of satisfaction are associated
with certain worker and job characteristics; e.g., older employees, higher-level employees and employees whose jobs allow them to use their skills and abilities tend to be most satisfied. The relationship between pay and satisfaction is complex and seems to be
related more to the perception that one is being paid fairly than to the actual amount of pay.
2. SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE: Contrary to what might be expected, the
research has found only a weak relationship between job satisfaction and performance, with the average correlation being around .14.
3. DISSATISFACTION AND TURNOVER: One of the strongest correlates of satisfaction is turnover, with high rates of dissatisfaction being associated with high rates of turnover. The average correlation is around -.40.
Scientific Management and Human Relations Movement
1. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: Management theory that advocates the use of scientific methods to achieve improved worker efficiency and productivity. Scientific management
emphasizes having each worker perform a simple, standardized component of the entire job and using pay as the primary motivator.
2. HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT: Approach to management that emphasizes social relationships and their role on productivity and morale. The Hawthorne studies were a
major contributor to the human relations movement.
Selection Ratio and Base Rate
1. SELECTION RATIO: The ratio of the number of applicants hired to the total number of applicants. The incremental validity (or utility) of a predictor is maximized when the selection ratio is low (e.g., 1:100 is better than 1:10).
2. BASE RATE: The percentage of current employees who are considered successful or
effective. The base rate ranges from 0.0 to 100.0%. When determining a predictor's incremental validity, a current base rate near 50% is preferred.
Social Facilitation and Inhibition
1. SOCIAL FACILITATION: The increase in learning and performance that occurs in the presence of others. Social facilitation is most likely to occur when the task is simple or well-learned.
2. SOCIAL INHIBITION: The decrease in learning and performance that occurs in the presence of others. Social inhibition is most likely to occur when the task is new or complex.
Theories X and Y
1. THEORY X: Management approach that assumes that employees are inherently lazy, incapable of self-discipline and seek to avoid work and, therefore, must be externally
controlled and motivated. Theory X is similar to the traditional scientific management approach.
2. THEORY Y: Management approach that assumes that employees are capable of
autonomy, are primarily self-motivated and will naturally integrate personal goals with
those of the organization. Theory Y is similar to the human relations approach.
Trainees with Special Needs
1. HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED: Persons who have been unemployed for at least six
months, have few marketable skills, are living at/below the poverty level and have less than a high school education. Training usually includes training in specific job skills, remedial education and/or programs designed to improve motivation and increase work values. Programs-largely unsuccessful. The following improves effectiveness: (a) Supportive organizational climate (e.g., child care, understanding supervisors); (b) trainees expect that the program will lead to pay increases and promotional opportunities; and (c) programs include training in remedial skills and specific job-related skills and emphasize on-the-job training.
2. SOFT-CORE UNEMPLOYED: Persons who suddenly find themselves unemployed, often after having worked most of their adult lives. This form is often followed by deterioration in mental and physical health. Usually, a return to paid employment is followed by rapid improvements in health.
3. OLDER EMPLOYEES: According to research, the performance of older employees is comparable to that of younger employees and any deficits tend to be compensated for by greater dependability and effort and less absenteeism. To be most effective, training materials should be presented at a slower pace and training should emphasize active learning and be organized so that basic skills can be mastered b4 complex tasks are taught.
Training
1. NEEDS ASSESSMENT: A process used to determine job performance requirements and employee performance deficits in order to identify training needs and the content of training programs.
2. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE TRAINING: (a) Maximize motivation by ensuring that
material to be learned is meaningful to the learner. (b) Provide immediate and ongoing feedback. (c) Foster overlearning; e.g., practicing a new skill beyond mastery. (d) Provide
frequent opportunities for active practice. Distributed, or spaced, practice is more effective than massed practice.
3. ON-THE-JOB AND OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING: On-the-job training (e.g., internships)
permits active participation and ongoing feedback, has obvious job relevance and
provides maximum opportunities for transfer of training. Off-the-job training (e.g., lectures,
role-playing) provides more opportunities to focus on specific job elements, to provide supplemental information and to use professional trainers and has sufficient flexibility to tolerate errors. Off-the-job training is useful when on-the-job training would be too
dangerous or too costly. VESTIBULE TRAINING is a method of off-the-job training that involves using simulated equipment or a simulated job environment.
Validity in I/O
In organizations, "validity" refers to the extent to which a predictor, criterion or other measure assesses what it is intended to measure.
1. CONTENT VALIDITY: Validity based on the extent to which a predictor reflects the job "universe" or requirements (skills, responsibilities, etc.). Content validity is determined by "expert judgment."
2. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY: Validity based on expert judgment and the accumulation of evidence related to the extent to which a predictor measures a theoretical construct or trait. Evidence for construct validity includes correlations with other tests, factor analysis,
internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity.
3. CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY: Validity determined by correlating the predictor (e.g.,
selection test) with a measure of job performance (criterion). Criterion-related validity can be concurrent or predictive.
4. VALIDITY GENERALIZATION STUDIES: Reviews of validity studies using meta-analytic techniques. They have found that criterion-related validity coefficients are usually higher than what is found in a single organization or study, that validity coefficients generalize across different organizations and jobs and that differential validity
is rare and, when reported, is often due to methodological flaws in the validation studies.
Work Safety and Accidents
1. METHODS FOR PREVENTING OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS AND INJURY: In order of
effectiveness, these include: (a) Eliminate the hazard; (b) contain the hazard; (c) train employees to recognize potential hazards and to use safe procedures; and (d) provide employees with appropriate personal protection (Famularo, 1986). Others suggest that top management commitment to safety programs is the key factor for their success.
2. CAUSE OF ACCIDENTS: People are the most common cause of accidents in
organizations; 50 to 80% of accidents are related to human error.
3. ACCIDENT RATES: Tend to be higher among young workers and among employees
who are apathetic or emotionally "low," experiencing stress, or high in extroversion or Type A behavior.