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I/O Psychology
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Job Analysis
A systematic method for collecting info needed to identify 1) nature of job; 2) knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics ("KSAOs") that indv must have to do the job; 3)measures that job performance can be evaluated. Results of job analysis: basis for developing criterion measures, provide info that facilitates wrk force planning & trng program design, assists w/decisions about job redesign and help idenitfy causes of accidents and other safety-related problems.
I/O Psychology
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Job Analysis - Methods
Observing employee job performance Qualitatitive approach: interviewing employees, supervisors, and other familiar w/job; reviewing company records; having employees keep a job diary. Quantitative approach: job oriented and/or worker oriented. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) example of job oriented: completed by job holder, supervisor or job analyst and provides info on 6 dimensions of worker activity (e.g., mental processes, relationships, etc). Worker oriented method: produces data that are more helpful for designing training programs and deriving criterion measures that provide useful employee feedback.
I/O Psychology
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Job Analysis v. Job Eval.
Job anaylsis: performed to clarify requirements of job. Job eval: conducted specifically to determine relative worth of job in order to set salaries and wages. Techniques of job eval range from judgmental to statistical, but all emphasize idenifying demands of job in terms of skill and effort, previous experience and education, and degree of autonomy and responsibility.
I/O Psychology
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Job Analysis- comparable worth
Job eval techniques recommended to establish COMPARABLE WORTH; i.e., to overcome gender differences in wages due to discrimination. Involves establishing wages on basis of ea. job's inherent value rather than job title or who perfoms job (male or female) by using same job eval technique (usually a point system) for all jobs within organization. Jobs w/equal eval points assigned equal salaries.
I/O Psychology
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Objective Measures
OBJECTIVE (DIRECT) MEASURES of job performance include quantitative meas. of production such as units produced, sold, or rejected, and certain types of personnel data incl. accidents, absenteeism, tardiness, and salary and promotion history. Obj. meas. provide direct info about employee perfor. but often inadequate, may be biased by situational factors such as difference in equip, territory or supplies which makes it difficult to compare the perfor. of diff employees or perfor of same employees at diff times or in diff situations. Job effectiveness (e.g., cooperation w/coworkers, job motivation) can't be assessed w/obj meas, and these meas often unavailable for complex prof., mgmnt, and admin. jobs.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Subjective Measures
Most freq. used perfor. assmt. techniques in orgs. and take the form of rating scales that reflect judgmnt of rater. Ratings by employee's immed. supvr. most common type of rating but peer and slf-ratings also used. Studies assessing the usefulness of these 3 kinds of meas. found that 1)slf-ratings tend to be most lenient but less susceptible to halo effect; 2) supvr. ratings most reliable; 3) peer ratings good for predicting training success and subseq. promotions; 4) peer & supvr. ratings agree more w/ea other than w/ slf-rating.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Rater Bias
Subj Meas. suscptible to rater biases: LENIENCY/STRICTNESS: rater tends to avoid middle range of rating scale and rates all employees either high (leniency) or low (strictness). CENTRAL TENDENCY: rater consistently uses only middle range of rating scale. HALO EFFECT: rater's eval of employee on one dimension of job perf. affects eval of that employee on other unrelated dimensions or rate's general impression of employee influences how rater rates employee om all dimensions. Halo effect can be "positive" or "negative."
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Rater Biases
Training most effective to improve accuracy of subj. rating and focuses on identifying and disting. btwn diff level of perfom. FRAME of REFERENCE (FOR) trng: provides raters w/common conception of the multidimensional nature of job perform. and of what constitutes effective and ineffct perform on ea, dimension. Raters rate specific rather than global behaviors/traits. Behaviors defined as CRITICAL INCIDENTS described as specific job behaviors that lead to successful/unsuccess job perf. Give suggestions on how to improve perf. & publicly insult empl who makes mistakes, examples of critical incident.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Types of Rating Scales
First two scales, paired comparison and forced distribution: RELATIVE (COMPARATIVE) TECHNIQUES, require rater to compare performance of two or more employees; remaining techniques: ABSOLUTE MEASURES. Advantage of relative techniques: can help alleviate central tendency, leniency and strictness biases. Disadvantages: force rater to place some ratees at high/low perf. levels when most employee perfming at same level; prohibited by law for most fed. jobs; raters and ratees dislike them; and less useful than absolute meas. for getting info needed to provide employees w/specific feedback abt perform.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Types of Rating Scales
PAIRED COMPARISON: rater compares ea ratee w/every other ratee in pairs on 1 or sevrl dimensions of job perf. Disadvntg: becomes increasingly cumbersome to use as # of ratees increase.
FORCED DISTRIBUTION: similar to grading on curve & involves assign ratees to limited # of categories based on predefined nrml distr. on 1 or more dimensions of job perf. (lowst 10%, nxt 20%, middle 40%, nxt 20% highst 10%). Disadv: may yield erroneous data if job perf. of ratees not nrmly distributed.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Rating Scales-Crit. Incidents
CRITICAL INCIDENT: fist deriving checklst of "critical incidents" by hvng supvr obsrv emplyee while wrkng & recrd spec. behvrs assoc. w/outstndg & poor perf. For perfrm appraisal, rtr marks items in cklst that apply to rtee. Advntg: provid, useful info for empl. fdbck. Disadvntg: development requires close supversion of emplyees and accurate recrdkpng by rater & it addresses only crtic (extreme) job behvrs, not typical ones.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Rating Scales-Forced Choice
FORCED CHOICE: Ea item consists of 2-4 alternatives considered to be equal in terms of desirability & rater selects altern that best/least
describes ratee. Reduces rater biases but time consumng to devl. & oft dislked by raters.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Rating Scales- Graphic Rating
Requires rater to indicate on Likert-type scale ratee's lvl of perf on 1 or svrl dimensions. Graphic ratng scales highly susceptible to rater biases but accuracy improved when points on scale anchored w/critic. incid.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Rating Scales-Behvr-Anchr BARS
When developing, supvr or others familiar w/job 1) identify svrl indep. dimensions of job behvr (knowlege, motivation. interpers. r/s); 2) svrl bhvr anchors (critic. incid) for ea dimension; 3) order & # bhvr anchors within ea dimension from least/most positive or desirable. Rater chooses one bhvr in ea dimension best descrbng emplyee w/specific fdbck abt job perf. Evidence that BARS increases inter-rater reliability and may reduce rater biases. Disadvntg: amt of time reqired to devel scale.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Standards for Evaluating
Must hav acceptable levels of reliability & validity. To max validity of criterion meas s/b based on systematic job analysis and s/b designed so not affected by irrelevant fctrs such as variations in wrk cond. or rater biases. Terms used to describe characteristics and adequacy of criterion meas: Ultimate (Conceptual) Criterion, Actual Criterion, Criterion Relevance, Criterion Deficiency and Crtierion Contamination.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Std. for Eval. Ultimate (Conceptual) Criterion
Theoretical and refers to accurate and complete measure of perf. (e.g., excellent salesperson).
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Std. for Eval. Ultimate
Actual Criterion
Actual meas of perf. In org settings, might be supervisor's rating or objective meas of productivity (e.g. annual sales).
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Std. for Eval. Ultimate
Criterion Relevance
Actual Criterion is relevant to extent that it meas the ultimate criterion. relevance often described as synonym for construct validity.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Std. for Eval. Ultimate
Criterion Deficiency
Actual criterion deficient to degree that it does NOT meas all elements of ultimate criterion.
Personnel- Assessing Employee Performance: Criterion Prob
Criterion Measures
Std. for Eval. Ultimate
Criterion Contamination
rating of employee's perf on criterion affected by irrelevant fctrs. Knowledgfe of employees predictor perf. is one source of criterion contamination- rater's knowledge of employee predictor perf. affects how rater rates employee on criterion. Thus, criterion not providing accurate info and if criterion used to validate predictor, criterion contamination likely to artifically inflate predictor's criterion-related valdity coeficient.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Reliability & Validity
RELIABILITY: performance on predictor not affected by measurement error. While sevrl meth used to estimate predictor reliability, most yield reliability coefficient that is interpreted directly as index of "true score variabilty."
VALIDITY: measures what designed to measure. 3 validity types: content, construct, and criterion-related.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Estab. Criter.-Relat. Validty
1. Conduct job analysis: ID KSAOs required for successful job perfor.
2. Select/Devel Predictor: select/devel. predictor that measures attributes ID'd by job anal.
3. Admin. Predictor & Criterion: admin predictor to sample of job applicants (predictive validity) or current emplyee (concurrent validity); obtain criterion info for all indvs. in sample.
4. Correlate Predictor & Crterion Scores: calc. correl. coeff. to determine if statist. signif. r/s btwn predictor and criterion scores
5. Check for diffntl. validity and unfairness: determ. if predictor has diff. lvls of validty for diff. subgrps (diffntl. validty) or of predictor scores consistntly underest. criterion perfor. of any subgrp (unfairness).
6. Evaluate Incremental Validity: determ. if use of predictr increases proport. of correct decisions.
7. Cross-Validate: perform stps 3 thru 6 with new sample. Cross validation coeff. usually smaller than orig. coeffic - SHRINKAGE - b/c chance factors in orig. validity coeff. not present in 2nd sample.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Incremental Validity
increases decis-mkg accuracy tht emplyr wil achve by usng predctr to make selctn decisns. Imprtnt contrbtr 2 meas's incrmntl valdty is valdty coeffic. Undr crtn cond., predctr w/valdty coeff low as .20 or .30 cn incrse decisn-mkg accurcy snce usefulns of predctr depnds on othr fctrs.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Incrmntl Valdty- Selctn Ratio
One fctr tht is rtio of jb opengs 2 job applcnts. Selctn rtio of 1:50=1job:50applcnts. A low selctn rtio (mny applcnts 4 1 job) prefrd b/c allws emplyr mre selctvty whn mkg decisn. W/low selctn rtio emplyr cn raz predctr cutoff scre & reduc rsk of hrng fls pos.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Incrmntl Valdty- Base Rate
Anthr fctr afftng Incrmntl Valdty - a % of emplye prfrmng satsfctrly w/o use of proposed prdctr and rangs in vlue frm 0 to 1.0. Mdrte bs rt (cls to .5) assoc w/grtst incrmntl valdty. Whn mst of emplye bng hird usng curr technq r ethr hghly sucsfl or unscsfl (hi bs rt or lw bs rt), addtn of new prdctr wil hv ltl efct on qlty of wrk frc.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Incrmntl Valdty- Taylor-Russell tables
cn b usd to est % of nw hirs hu wil b succfl as emplye gvn varius combntns of vldty coeff, slctn rtios, & bs rts. E.G., accrdng 2 Tayl-Russ tbls, % of satsfctry emplyes wil b lrgr whn tst hs vldty coeff. of .30, slctn rtio is 1:100 and bs rt .45 thn whn tst hs vldty coeff of .40, slctn rtio is 1:10 and bs rt .25 (i.e., whn slctn rtio lw & bs rt mdrte, prdctr w/lw vldty coeff cn impr decsn-mkg accrcy.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Legal Issues
Title 7 of Cvl Rts Act & Cvl Rts Act of 1991 prhbt discr in hrng, plcmnt, trng, prmtn, and retn on bsis of rc, clr, rlgn, or ntl orgn, and mre rec legsltn prhbts discr on bsis of ag or disab. Provsns of Title 7 and reltd lws nfrcd by EEOC, tht issud Unifm Gdlns on Emplye Slctn Prcdrs & aply 2 "any meas, combntn of meas or prcdrs usd as bsis fr emlymnt decsns" & pertn 2 slctn prcdrs rngng "frm trad ppr & pncl tsts, prfm tst, trng prgrms, or probtn prds & phys ed & wrk expr rqmnts thru nfrml or csual intrvs & unscrd applictn frms."
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Legal Issues- Adverse Impact
accrdng 2 Unfrm Gdlns, emplymnt prcdrs mite b discrmntg agnst mnrty grp whn hs Adverse impact: occur whn use of procdr rslts n sbstntlly diff slctn, plcmnt, or prmntn rte 4 mmbrs of sbgrp. 80% (4/5) RULE oft usd 2 dtrmn procdr hvng adv impct: hiring rate 4 mnrty grp X 80% to dtrmn min hrng rte 4 mnrty grp. (e.g., if slctn tst rslts in 50% rte 4 AfAmer & 90% 4 whts, tst wud b hvng adv impct 4 AfAmer b/c 90% X 80%=72% wch grtr tn hrng rte 4 AfAmer. Shrtcmg of 80% Rule is tht cn b usd 2 dtrmn if prsn hs bn discrmtd agnst only whn mmbr of spec. grp (i.e., 4 fndng adv imp, 80% Rul req tht pttrn of discr b estab.)
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Legal Issues- Differential Validity
Diffntl Vldty occurs whn a meas valid 4 one grp bt nt valid (or sig. ls valid) 4 anthr grp. Charctrstc tht disting grps (e.g., gndr, rc, ag) rfrd 2 as moderatr variabl.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Legal Issues- Unfairness
occurs whn mmbrs of 1 grp consistntly obtn lwr scrs on prdctr thn mmbrs of anthr grp, bt diff in prdctr scrs nt rflctd in diff in actul jb prfrmc. (adv imp when same prdctr cutoff scre usd 4 bth grps).
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Legal Issues- Business Necessity & BFOQ
Courts gnrly rul brdn of prf on defend (emplyr) whn plntf n cls-actn suit shows tht emplymt prcdrs hvn adv imp. Emplyr cn use sev defns 2 justfy cont. use of prcdrs. (e.g., emplyr cn show tht cont. use of meas is a business necssty. whn usng ths defns, emplyr mst nt only pruv meas is jb-rltd, bt mst show tht use req'd 4 sfe & effcnt oper of bus. Emplyr cn show tht charctrstc in questn is BONA FIDE OCCUPTIONAL QUALIFICATION (BFOQ). e.g., gender is bfoq whn a) essntl detrmnt of the genuinss of job (e.g, acceptbl 2 intrvw only men 4 male rol in a play) or b) whn prsn's gender mst b tkn n2 considr. 2 mntn cmmty stds of morality or proprity (e.g., acceptbl to intrvw only wmn 4 wmn's restrm attndnt.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Legal Issues- ADA 1991
Req. companies w/25 or mre emplyes 2 avoid usng prcdrs tht discr agnst peop w/phys or mntl disab. Varity of cond my produc disabs cvrd by ADA incl spnl crd injr, diabet, MS, AIDS, cancr, dyslx, blnd, & deprsn. Whn disab'd indv abl 2 perf essntl funct of jb, indv 2 b considr qlfd, & emplyr mst mk "reas accom" (e.g., provd spec eqpt, pay 4 readr or intrptr) as lng as dng so duz nt rslt n undu hrdshp 4 emplyr. ADA req tht pre-emplymnt prcdrs b dirtly rel 2 job rqrmnts & specifcly prhbits use of med. exam prior 2 mkn emplymnt ofr. & med exam mst b jb reltd & mst b admin 2 all applcnts, nt just disabld. Excptn drug tstng, nt consid med exam undr ADA & my b admin b4 & aftr hirng indv & may rfuz 2 hir applcnt b/c of pos tst.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Combining Predictors
No 1 prdctr likly 2 b compltly adq 4 jb slctn; multi prdctrs usully prfrd. Prdctr scrs cn b comb in svrl ways: Multiple Regress: prdctr scor wghtd & sumed 2 yld estimd criter scor w/ea prdctr's wght bng dtrmnd by its corr w/the criterion & w/othr prdctrs. Multi Regress compnstry b/c exceptnl perfrmc on 1 prdctr cn offset prfrmnc on anthr prdctr.
Mutliple Cutoff: is non-compnstry. Minimum scor on ea prdctr mst b obtnd b4 applicnt wil b cnsdrd 4 slctn. Multi cutoff tchnq cn b usd n cnjnct w/multi regrss by 1st slctng only peop hu scor abv minimum cutoff pnt on all prdctrs & then usng multi regrss equatn 2 predct slctd applict's critern scor.
Multiple (Successive) Hurdles: prdctrs admin 1 at a time in predtrmnd ordr, w/ea prdctr bng admin only if previus 1 hs bn sucsfly passed or compltd. Advntg of multipl hrdl is tht it savs tme & $ b/c all prdctrs nt admin 2 all applcnts.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Predictors Organization
General Mental (Cog.) Ability
General Mental Ability Tests (GMA): consistently produce highest validity coeff. across jobs & job settings. Schmidt & Hunter's met-analyses report avg corr coeff of .51 btwn GMA and job perfom and .56 btwn GMA perform in job trng progms. Validity coeff 4 meas of GMA vary depndg on objctvty of criter meas. One study found avg corr coeff of .53 whn criter is perform ratng & coeff of .75 whn criter is perform on wrk smple.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Predictors Organization
Job Knowledge
Good predictor for job perform w/reported validity coeff bng similar 2 or even lrgr thn thse 4 meas of GMA. Unlik GMA, meas of job know. r job spec & usfl only whn applcnts hv hd prev job trng or expr.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Predictors for Organization
Personality Tests
Meta-analyses indicat persnlty tsts cn b usfl prdctrs in org sttngs, tho studies inconsist w/regard 2 relatv vldty of glbl & spec prsnlty meas. Glbl trats-BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS- neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and concientiousness, hv bn studied extnsvly. Of ths trats, conscientiousness found 2 b bst prdctr of job perform acrss diff jobs sttngs and criter meas.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Predictors Organization
Interest Tests
Used in org based on premise tht applcnts huse ntrst prfile resm ths of sucsfl emplyes wil prfrm bst on job. Mst wdly usd ntrst tst Strong Interest Inventory & Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS). Both usfl 4 career and voca counsel but use as slctn tool questnbl b/c suscptbl 2 fakng. Rsrch shows ntrst tsts mre valid 4 prdctng job chce, satisfctn, and prsistnce thn job suces.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Predictors Organization
Biodata (Biographical Data)
based on assmptn tht bst prdctr of futr bhv is pst bhvr & assmptn hs bn cnfrmd by studs fndng biogrphcl inf 2 b amg most valid prdctr acrss org, occuptns, & smpls. Vldty of biodata max'd whn itms dervd mprcly. Biographical Information Blanl (BIB), typ of mprcly-dervd form, cntns mltpl-chc quest tht not only ases applcnt's job hx bt also fam bkgrnd, econ hx, hlth, attitud, prfrncs, valus, etc. Disadvge of BIB & othr mprcly-dervd frms: oftn lak face validity -i.e., itms not clrly reltd 2 job prfrmc. consq, applcnts may rsist thm b/c thy prcv thm 2 b invsn of prvcy.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Predictors Organization
Interviews
By far mst cmmly usd mthd 4 obtng nfo abt job applicnts, tho thy gnrly hv lwr lvls of relblty & vldty thn mny othr slctn tchnqs. Ntrvws cn b mprvd by: trng ntrvwrs n obsrvtn & ntrprsnl skls, rlblty & vldty of ntrvws max'd whn strctrd ntrvw usd (all intrvwes askd sm questns n sm way, past-orentd ntrvws (bhvr dscrptns) mre valid thn futr-orentd (situtnal) ntrvws, sum xprts rcmnd mult ntrvws (pnl or brd ntrvws) bt strctrd ntrvws most relble, valid & cst-efctv whn ntails sngl ntrvwr.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Predictors Organization
Work (Job) Sample
Indv req 2 prfrm tsk simlr or idntcl 2 ths actuly prfrmd on job nd mst cmmly usd 2 slct applcnts 4 jobs requrng clrcl, mechan, tech skls. Wrk smpls usd 2 eval exprd applcnts 2 ases curr abilty 2 prfrm job, bt cn b usd w/applcnts hu dont hv prev expr 2 eval capcty 2 bnefit frm trng - trainability tests. Wrk smps also usd as prt of a REALISTIC JOB INTERVIEW (RJP). Assmptn udrlyng use of RJP - disillusionment w/job primary caus of turnovr; and purps is 2 redc unreal job expctn, ncrsng job satsfctn & commtmnt, nd lwr turnovr.
Personnel- Predicting Employee Performance:
Predictor Problem
Predictors Organization
Assessment Centers
Usd 2 eval mngr'l-lvl prsnel 2 dtrmn if lwr-lvl mngrs s/b promoted 2 hier lvl pstns or 2 ID mngr's needs 4 trng nd pern devel. Cntrs ncorprte # of tchnqs incl strcturd ntrvws, wrtn tsts, nd situtnal tsts (wrk smpl). IN-BASKET TEST bst knwn of situtnal tst - reqrs indv 2 tk actn on ltrs, memoranda, rpts, etc. typclly of ths ncountrd by mngrs. Cntrs asesd bt team of evaltrs on # of dmnsns incl ldrshp, hum rel skls, oral & wrttn communictn, resistnc 2 strss, decis-mkg, nd flxblty.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Trng can't substitute 4 poor slctn prcdrs or an nadeqte wrk envr bt cn nhanc job prfrmc by imprv skls and incrsng knwlg, nstilng mre appro job attitudes & habits, and exposng new emplyes 2 orgznl polic. & pract. Trng prgrm devlpmnt begins w/needs asesmnt (or needs anal.) whch cnsist of 4 elmnts: a) orgnztl anal to ID org. goals & dtrmn if trng is needed 2 achv gols; b) task (job) anal 2 ID wht mst b don 2 prfrm job sucsfly; c) prson anal. 2 dtrmn wch emplye req trng & wht KSAOs thy need 2 acqr; e) demogr anal 2 ID trng needs of diff grps of wrkrs (e.g., old v yng).
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Principles of Effective Training - Feedback
Provide feedbk: immed & ongng fdbk abt thr lrng essntl 4 effctv trng. Fdbk nhnces motivtn & reducs lklhd of futr mstks. Fdbk mst effctv whn provd asap aftr trgt bhvr hs ocurd.
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Principles of Effective Training- Foster Overlearning
OVERLEARNING ocurs whn indv practs new skl or studes matl bynd pnt of mstry. Ovrlrng orig dscrbd as tchnq 4 rembrng nfo the hs lttl nhrnt meang bt mus b reclld 4 lng tme. Also usfl 4 othr typs of nfo, esp whn tht nfo wil b rclld nfrqutly or undr strsfl cond. Do nt cnfuz ovrlrng w/ovrtrng (usd in sprts psych n rfrs 2 phys n psychlgcl strss rsltng frm xcsv athlctc trng.) Signs of ovrtrng incl. susptblty 2 nfctn, incrs of minr injrs, exrcs. ntolernc, anxty, depr, n dcrs in motvtn & prfrmc).
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Principles of Effective Training - Provide Frequent Opportunities for Active practice
Actv lrng mre effctv thn passv lrng, freq opprty 4 actv pract s/b prov. Pract bst whn distr (spaced) ovr tme rthr thn massed at 1 tme, nd ths esp tru 4 tsk invl mtr skls or memorztn.
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Principles of Effective Training - Promote Transfer of Training
Trng prgrm sld rslt in pos trnsfr or mprvmnts n on-the-job prfrmnc. Pos. trnsfr maxmzd whn fllwng cond met: 1) dgre of simlrty btwn aspcts of lrng nd prfrmnc envr maxmzd (IDENTICLE ELEMENTS provided); 2) genrl rules nd prncpls taut n addtn 2 spec. skls; 3) trng incls xposre 2 vrity of xmpls nd othr relv stmuli; 4) skls acqrd n trng sbsqntly renfrcd nd spprtd on job.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Methods of Training
On-the-Job Training
Various Methods of Training classified as either on-the-job or off-the-job tchnqs. On-the-job tchnq most widly used. Advntgs r tht thy prmit actv prtciptn nd ongng fdbk, hv job relevnc, nd prov max. opprtnty 4 trnsfr of trng. Xmpls incl ntrnshps, apprntcshps, nd mentrng. Two on-the-job tchnqs, job rotatn nd crss trng, r meth of trng nd orgnztnl devl ntrvntns. JOB ROTATION invol hvng trnees lrn svrl jobs nd ordnrly usd 2 trn mngrs, whl crss trng ntails trng wrkrs 2 prfrm diff tsks nd actvits.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Methods of Training
Off-the-Job Training
Off-the-job Trng provds mre opprtntys 2 focus on nd prctc spec. job elmnts, provd spplmntl nfo, nd 2 use prof trnrs. Also, thes tchnqs hv suffcnt flxbty 2 tolrt lrng errors. Potnl dsadvntgs r low trnee motvtn, rstrctd trnsfr of trng, nd hghr cost du 2 tme off job. Off-the-job tchnqs incl lctrs, cmptr-asst instr, mltimed trng, bhvr mdlng, nd vstbul trng.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Methods of Training
Behavior Modeling & Vestibule Training
Bhvr mdlng based on Bandura's (1969) Soc Lrng Thry wch props tht lrng facltd whn prsn obsrvs skld wrkr prfrm trgt bhvr nd then provd w/opprtnty 2 prctc bhvr. VESTIBULE TRAINING mks use of physcl rplictn or simultn of wrk envr nd usfl whn on-the-job trng wud b too cstly or dangrus.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Evaluation of Training Progs
Four Lev of Criteria: 1) Reaction Crit: eval particp.'s reaction 2 prgrm (stsfctn w/trng expr) nd r not necssly linkd 2 job prfrmc. 2) Learning Crit: eval hw mch particpnts lrnd frm trng prgrm. 3) Behavioral crit: asses particpnt's chng in prfrmc whn thy retr 2 job. 4) Results crit: addrs valu of trng prgrms n trms of orgnztn's goal. Rslts Crit usuly mst mprtnt bt thy r mst diff 2 dev nd r nfreqly usd. Srvy of 110 compnys: 78% measd trne's reactn, whl 50% attmpd to eval lrng, bhvr, or rslts.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Evaluation of Training Progs
Reslts Crit most imprtnt but mst diff 2 devel nd infrqntly used. Survey of 110 busi found 78% meas'd trnee's reactn, 50% eval lrng, bhvr, nd rslts. Lrng asses'd mre oft thn bhvr nd rslts. eval of prgrms also descr n trms of FORATIVE EVAL & SUMMATIVE EVAL.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Evaluation of Training Progs - Formative & Summative Evaluation
Formative Eval: cndctd whl trng progr bng devlpd, nd rslts r usd to mk necssry mods to progr. Summative eval cndctd aftr prog hs bn implmntd n ordr to dtrmn hw mch trnees hv lrnd nd to eval progm's cst effctvnss.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Training for Special Populations
Management Development Training: Mgmnt Devel Trng aimed at nhncng mngr'l chrctstcs nd skls sch as achvmnt motvtn, slf-effcy, prob-slvng, dcsn-mkg, nd ldrshp; nd oftn nclds use of simultns. Leaderless Group Discussion: prsnts 4-8 prtcpnts w/probs thy mst slv n spec priod of tme. No indv dsgntd as ldr; nstd, prtcpnts r gvn opprt'y to demnstrt ldrshp, communctn, dcsn-mkng, nd ntrprsnl skls n reltvly unstrctrd settng. Rsrch sggsts clr incrs n prtcpnt's knwldg but lss mpct on job bhvr unlss dsrble bhvrs r reinf by superiors nd cowkrs.
I/O Personnel
Training:
The Facilitation Problem
Training for Special Populations
Chronic Mentally Ill: rsrch on voc rehab 4 chrnc ment ill shw tht adeqt soc. spprt n pts envr. grtly mprvs effctvnss of rehab effrts. Prgrms tradly ncld pts' famly but also ncld othr sig. peop within nd outside pts's wrk envr. Anthr crit aspct of voc rehab for chrnc mntly ill is prvsn of soc.skls trng snc maj. barryr to succs is nablty to apply appropr skls to dmnds of job. Swtch frm "trn-then-plac" to "plac-then-tran." Supprtd Emplymnt Modl chrctrzd by emphas on mtchng peop w/jobs n communty nd then prov ongng instr, spprt nd mntl hlth svcs.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Super:
Super proposes a life-space, life-span theory of career development that integrates 3 concepts
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Super: Self-Concept
Self-Concept: a product on inherited aptitudes, physical make-up, and soc. lrng expr nd defind as "picture of the self in some role, situation, or position, performing some set of mfunctions, or in some web of relationships." Self-concept chngs ovr lif spn but bcms incrsnly stbl w/incrsng ag. Job stsfctn, stblty, nd sccss dpnd on xtnt to whch job mtchs indv. slf-cncpt.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Super: Life Span
Ocurs in 5 stgs: grwth (0-14), xplrtn (14-25), stblhsmnt (25-45), mtce (45-65), nd dsngagmnt (65+). Ea stg charctrzd by diff set of devel tsks. (e.g, durng xplrtn stg, prmry tsks r crystlzng, specfyng, nd mplmntng career choic. Super uses CAREER MATURITY (or, n adults, career adptblty) to descr ablity to cope w/devlpmntl rsks of lif stg. Fctrs tht dtrmn career maturtiy nclud awrnss of need to pln ahed, dcsn-mkg skls, knwldg nd use of info rsorcs, gnrl career info, dtaild inf abt occuptns. Career maturity assesd w/ Career Develpmnt Invtry.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Super: Life Space
Life Space rfrs to varius soc. rls indv adpts at diff pnts durng lif spn - e.g., chld, stdnt, citzn, wrkr. Life-Career Rainbow, 1 of svrl pictures Super uses to dpict elmnts of his helpng a career counslee recgnz mpct of curnt nd futr rls nd stgs on career plnng.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Holland
Develpd n 1985 nd mphszs mprtnc of mtchng indv's prsnlty to charctrstcs of wrk envr. Holland proposes tht indv wil b mre satsfid, wil sta lngr on job, b mre prdctv whn a good prsnlty fit. Dstngush btwn 6 bsic prsnlty/wrk envr typs: REALISTC, INVESTGATIVE, ARTISTIC, SOCIAL, ENTERPRISING, and CONVENTIONAL ("RIASEC"). E.G., indv who primrly conventional, bst suited for a conventional job tht nvolvs systmtc orgnztn nd mnpultn of data (word proc. or acctnt). Holland proposes tht the prnlty-envr mtch mst accurat as prdctr of job-rlatd outcms whn indv xhbts hi dgree of DIFFERENTIATION - i.e., hs clr ntrsts evdncd by hi scor on 1 of Holland's 6 ntrst nd low scor on all othrs.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Roe
Roe nfluncd by Maslow. Links occptnl choic to prnlty nd bsic needs; prsnlty nd needs lrgly dtrmnd by early famly atmsphr (prnt-chld r/s) nd clssfd as bng predomntly accptnt, avoidnt, ovrprtctv. Famly atmsphr ntracts w/genetic nd othr envr nfluncs to prduc bsic orientn of eithr "twrds othr peop" or "not twrds othr peop." Descrbs occptn n trms of 8 bsic typs (e.g., Service, Technology, Arts, and Entertainment) nd 8 levls rangng from "Support, Unskilled" to Innovation and Independent Responsibility." Rsrch on career typs cnfrmd thry's prdctn tht indv's job chngs most lkly to nvlv transtns within 1 of these 8 typs.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Tiedeman & Ohara
Consdrs career ID dev to b aspct of Ego Identity Development, descrbd n trms of Erickson's psychosoc. stgs. Thy propose tht ID dev nvolvs 2 reptitv sequnt'l proceses nd 2 phazs. Two processes r Differentiation nd Integration: Differntiation rfrs to maintng one's uniqnss nd indvlty whl intergration rfrs to bcmng prt of career or othr soc. systm. Two phzs r anticipation/preoccupation nd implementation/adjustment: durng antcptn/preoccptn phz, indv xplrs diff voctnl possblts nd then mks voc choic. Implntn/adj phz, indv nters wrk situtn nd evntully achvs bal btwn dmnds of wrk situtn his/her own needs.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Krumboltz
Proposes a Soc. Lrng Thry of career decsn-mkg tht descrbs indv's career path n trms of 4 nfluncng fctrs: a) Genetic endwmnt nclds spec'l abilties sch as artstc nd athletc; b) Environmental condtns nd events ncluds job opprt'y, technlgcl devel, nd neighbrhd nd comm'ty nfluncs; c) Learning experiences r affctd by both genetic endwmnt nd envrmntl circumstncs nd nclud instr'l lrng (lrng rsltng frm rewrds nd punismnts) nd assoctv lrng (lrng due to classcl condtng); d) Task apprch skls r rslt of intractn btwn othr 3 fctrs nd nclud prfrmnc xpctatn, wrk hbts, cog. proc., nd emotnl respns. These 4 fctrs dtrmn natur of indv's slf-obsrvtn nd wrldvu gnrlztns (blief aby oneself nd wrld of wrk), whch, n trn, nfluncs educn'l nd occptnl choic nd actns.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Krumboltz
Descrbs pirmry gol of career counslng as facltng "lrng of skls, ntrsts, blefs, valus, wrk hbts, nd prsnl qltys tht nabl ea clnt to cre8 stsfyng lif within cnstnly chnging wrk envrmnt." Apprch duz not focs on on mtch indv's chrctrstcs to job chrctrstcs but mphszs continul lrng nd slf-devlpmnt, whch nabls indv to respnd to chngs n wrk rqrmnts. Career Belief Inventory one of assmnt tools usd by counslrs adptng Krumboltz's apprch. IDs irrtnl, illgcl, blefs tht nflunc indvl's career-rltd dcsns.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Career Development & Career Choice - Brousseau & Driver
Model of career dev mphszs CAREER CONCEPT, whch rfrs to indv's career dcsns nd motvs. Modl distng btwn 4 diff career cncpts tht vry n trms of 3 dmnsns - frqncy on job, drctn of chng, nd typ of chng n job contnt: Linear Concept vus career nvolvng progrssv upwrd mvmnt n trms of authrty nd rspsblty. Expert Concept vus career nvolvng lflng cmmtmt to occupt'l spclty nd fcus on devlpng knwldg nd skls w/in spclty. Spiral Concept nvsns career nvolvng perodic mvs acrss occptn'l spcltys or discplns. Transitory Concept cnsdrs ideal career nvolvng freq job chngs, oftn to jobs in unrltd flds. Note: n past, org. prfrd linear nd xprt cncpts bu crrnt trnd twrd continus ntrnl chng in org., indv w/siral nd transtry cncpts my b prfrbl. Rgu, to maintn effctvnss, orgs musr adopt "pluralistic career culture" tht spprts varius career cncpts of thr mplyees.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Unemployment
Longitudinal & cross-sectnl rsrch on effcts of unempl. (after wrkng most of lif) shws tht typcly fllwd by deterioration n mntl nd phys hlth: majrty shw signs of incrsd anxiety, deprssn, nd strss nd incrs n phys illns nd injures. Dcln in mntl nd phys hlth rslt of unempl rthr thn its cause evidncd by fact tht rtrn to pd empl usully fllwd by rapid imprvmnt n hlth. Mxmzing communic w/mplyees, explaing crit for dcsn hu laid off nd hu remains, nd furnshngotplcmnt prgrm tht provds mplyees w/career nd psychlgcl counslng, job srch trng nd admin spprt helps to reduc neg mpct of unempl.
I/O Personnel Psychology
Careers & Career Counseling
Downsizing
Primary cause of unempl nd ocurs whn org atmpts to reduc costs by reducng siz of wrk frc (mst oftn mddl mgmnt) and/or by elmintng ntir divsns or businsses. It hs neg consq. for ths laid off nd also for thse hu remain on job. SURVIVOR SYNDROME: chrctrzd by deorssn, aniety, guilt, strss-rltd illnss, nd dcrsd job stsfctn nd orgztnl commtmnt. Mprtnt dtrminant of attiudes of survivors is dgree to which fair nd cmpssnte procdrs r usd durng la off procss.