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12 Cards in this Set

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Confidentiality vs. Privelege
1. CONFIDENTIALITY: Confidentiality is generally considered to be an ethical concept that refers to a professional's obligation not to disclose information given to him/her in
confidence by a client, research participant, student, etc. Confidentiality refers to a
client's "right to privacy."
2. PRIVILEGE: A legal term referring to a client's statutory right to not have confidential information disclosed (without his/her permission), especially during a court or other legal
proceeding. Privilege can (or must) be breached in certain legally-defined situations; e.g., when the client is believed to be a danger to self or another person.
EAP
A mental health service program offered to employees by the employer. The professionals offering the services are employed by the organization or hired as consultants. Some EAPs offer a variety of services such as referrals, testing, crisis intervention and other
short-term treatments. Others focus on specific issues such as drug abuse, alcoholism, etc. Managers and supervisors may attempt to obtain confidential information about employees from EAP therapists. In most situations, the employee's right to confidentiality
must by maintained. An exception is when an employee has been referred to an EAP by his/her supervisor as part of a disciplinary action. In this case, it is often necessary for the therapist to inform the supervisor if the employee has attended counseling sessions and accepted the recommendations of the therapist. A therapist should make sure the employee is aware of the limits on confidentiality in this situation.
Ethical Principals and Codes of Conduct
Ethics Code contains both aspirational goals "to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology" (the GENERAL PRINCIPLES) and specific enforceable rules of
conduct (the ETHICAL STANDARDS).
GENERAL GUIDELINES, SPECIALTY GUIDELINES, STANDARDS FOR TESTINGs
1. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PROVIDERS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES: A set of
standards established by the APA to guide the conduct of all providers of psychological services. The goal of the General Guidelines is to serve "as a means of self-regulation to
protect the public interest."
2. SPECIALTY GUIDELINES: A supplement to the generic General Guidelines, which
contains specific guidelines to "facilitate the continued systematic development of the
profession." There are four versions, one for each of four specialty areas: clinical psychology, counseling psychology, school psychology and industrial/organizational
psychology.
3. STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING: APA's guidelines for the evaluation of tests, testing practices and the effects of test use.
HOLDER OF PRIVILEGE
The "holder of the privilege" is the person who decides what confidential information is to be released, particularly in the context of court and other legal proceedings. Generally, laws related to privilege make the client the holder of the privilege (unless the client is dead or has a guardian or conservator).
INFORMED CONSENT
"Informed consent" is a practice designed to protect clients (and research participants) by guaranteeing their privacy, safety and freedom. Generally, true informed consent can be obtained only when the individual is competent, free from pressure and coercion and knowledgeable about the intervention.
INSANITY
"Insanity" is a legal term that refers to a defendant's ability to distinguish between right and wrong. For instance, a psychologist might be asked to determine whether or not a defendant is "insane." Because insanity is a legal term, not a psychological one, it would be unethical for a psychologist to give the opinion that a person is (or was) "insane."
LARRY vs. P. RILES
The court case Larry P. vs. Wilson Riles restricted the use of standardized intelligence tests in schools, since their use results in a disproportionate number of Black students being placed in EMR classes.
Lincensure and State Licensing Boards
1. LICENSURE: The primary goal of licensure is to protect the public welfare by
guaranteeing that licensees "have completed minimum educational programs, have a certain number of hours of supervised training and have gone through some kind of
evaluation and screening" (Corey, Corey and Callanan, 1988). 2. STATE LICENSING BOARDS: The primary purpose of state licensing boards is to
protect the public. To do so, the board establishes minimum standards of competence for psychologists and penalties for failing to meet these standards.
Malpractice
"Malpractice" is the injurious or unprofessional treatment of a client by a practitioner psychotherapist, psychiatrist, etc.). Malpractice is generally covered under tort law and a
malpractice claim requires that three conditions be met: there must be a relationship between the practitioner and the client that implies a duty; there must have been a breach
of that duty; and the breach must have caused the client some identifiable harm.
Tarasoff Decision and Duty to Warn
1. TARASOFF DECISION: Decision in the Tarasoff v. Regents of University of California (1976) case, which established the legal responsibility of psychologists to warn
appropriate persons when a client is believed to pose a clear and imminent danger to
another person (e.g., to warn the victim, the notify the police or take other appropriate steps to ensure the victim's safety).
2. DUTY TO WARN: A therapist's legal obligation to warn a client's intended victim of threatened harm. The duty to warn was established by the original Tarasoff decision.
Impression Management (Ingratiation/Self-Monitoring)
Social psychologists have identified several strategies that people use to create a desired social image or identity. For ex.
1. INGRATIATION: One of the most commonly-used methods of impression management;
ingratiation refers to the tactics a lower-power person uses to enhance his/her image in the eyes of a higher-power person and thereby reduce the power differential. Ingratiation
tactics include conformity and agreement, flattery and self-enhancement.
2. SELF-MONITORING: High self-monitors are extremely sensitive to the impression
management techniques used by others and subsequently use these techniques
themselves and are exceptionally good at determining what behaviors, attitudes, etc. are
socially desirable or expected in different situations.