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148 Cards in this Set

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id
pleasure principle
basic biological drives
unconscious, unorganized
processes deduced from dreams, "slips", free assoc., etc.
ego
reality principle
logical, ordered, reason, judgement
superego
conscience
consequence of successful passage thru Oedipal stage
internalization of parental restrictions & customs
according to psychoanalytic theory, what is basic dynamic of personality?
conflict of ego (bt id/superego/reality)
repression
rejection from consciousness painful/shameful experiences
-aim of psychoanalysis is to bring conflicts out of repression
denial
feelings, thoughts, needs that cause anxiety are not acknowledged. (not necc. painful/shameful exp. like in repression)
reaction formation
typical of OCD
replace unacceptable urges by opposites
rationalization
giving a socially-acceptable reason to explain unacceptable behavior/thoughts
projection
placing unacceptable wishes on another
includes severe prejudice, hypervigilance to external danger
displacement
transferring emotion from orignial object to a safer one. ex. phobias displace fears onto other objects
fixation
stuck in a stage of development that has been attained successfully and returns to stag when problems too much to cope
sublimation
transformation of libidinal urges into socially-acceptable interests/activities
projective identification
depositing unwanted aspects of self onto another, then identify with aspects of other to recover them. Often through pressure of other to experience similar feelings.
splitting
focus on dividing external objects into "all good, all bad"
intellectualization
control of emotion and impulses by thinking about them rather than experiencing them.
undoing
symbolic acting-out in reverse of something unacceptable one has already done.
signal anxiety
signals break-down of defensive structure
primary process
unconsicous
governed by id
secondary process
conscious
governed by ego
resistance
reluctance of px to recall traumatic memories (Freud)
transference
px projecting own feelings/thoughts/attitudes of persons in past onto analyst
catharsis
emotional release from recall of unconscious material
insight
px sees connection between behaviors and unconscious material
working through
final stage in psychoanalysis
results in assimilation of insights into personality
Analytic Psychology
Jung
unconscious exists on two levels:
1) individual or personal unconscious - arises from repression
2) collective unconscious - universally inherited neural patterns or "archetypes" -
Archetypes
Jung - predispositions to perception/emotion we all share
Jung's extroversion & introversion, when switch?
developmentally-determined, we all turn from extroversion of youth to introversion in adulthood.
Mid-point of life cycle, around 40 y.o.
Inferiority complexes
Adler's theory
Every child experiences feelings of inferiority that supply motivation to grow & dominate
Style of life
Adler
compensatory patterns of behavior initiated to overcome inferiority feelings
Goal of Adlerian therapy
help client replace "mistaken style of life" with healthier one
ex. Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) and STE-Teaching (STET)
basic anxiety - Who and what?
-Horney (neo-freudian)
-a feeling of helpless and isolation in hostile world
-caused by parental behaviors
-conseq. relates to move against, toward, or away from others
Prototaxic Mode - Who and what?
-Sullivan
-infant cognitive experience in first mos of life
-experiences before language symbols used
-characterize experience of schizophrenics
3 modes of cognitive experience in infant
-Sullivan
Prototaxic: 1st months, unconnected moments
Parataxic: see causal connections not actually related = developing self
Syntaxic: End of 1st yr, symbols w/shared meaning, logical & sequential. Underlies language acquisition
According to Sullivan, what causes neurotic behavior?
parataxic distortions - relating to others as if they were significant persons from early life
Fromm - emphasized what?
(neo-freudian) role of societal factors in personality dev. How societal demands prevent ind. from realizing true nature
Ego-Analysts: Anna Freud, Rappaport, Hartmann
-Focus on role of ego in personality dev.
-healthy beh is under conscious control
-pathology ensues when ego loses autonomy from id
-"re-parenting"
object introject
mental representation of a person, either the self or another.
"psychological birth": who, when, what?
-Mahler
-3rd year of life
-infant ego develop stable self identity and ability to maintain representation of another (healthy development)
Self-psychology: who & best known work?
-Kohut
-Narcissism: natural self-love develops protective grandiose self
Object-relations therapy involves what?
re-parenting
facilitates reintegration of ego
Major difference between freudian and neo-freudian therapists?
neo-freudians emphasize social and cultural, as opposed to intrapsychic, determinants of personality
Jung's conception of transference vs. Freud
Jung believed projection would include both personal and collective unconscious
3 char of Client-centered therapy
Accurate Empathic Understanding
Unconditional Positive Regard
Congruence of therapist words/actions
neurotic vs. existential anxiety
existential anxiety, or normal anxiety, is fit to the cause and can be used constructively.
Neurotic anxiety results when one tries to evade normal anxiety and leads to inability to take responsibility for own life
Goals of existential therapy
eliminate neurotic anxiety and help client learn to tolerate the unavoidable existential anxiety of living.
Client-therapist relationhip important (egalitarian)
Gestalt Therapy, who & what?
Fritz Perls
idea that each person is capable fo assuming responsibility and living as a whole, integrated person
self vs. self image
gestalt therapy
-self: promotes actualization, growth, and awareness
-self image: imposes external standards on self and impairs self-actualization and growth
boundary disturbances
gestalt therapy
results in a person who is less controlled by self and more controlled by self image (includes introjection, projection etc.)
retroflection
a person does to himself that which he wants to do to others
-chief mechanism underlying isolation, according to gestalt
deflection
avoidance of contact/awareness by being vague, indirect or overly polite
confluence
-lack of or thin boundaries bt self & environment
-self is merged into beliefs, attitudes, and feelings of others
isolation
non-existent boundary between self & environment
-all understanding of importance of others for hte self is lost
goals and techniques of gestalt therapy
-goal is awareness of self/environ/boundary bt two
-here and now focus, transference is fantasy getting in way of true self-awareness
reality therapy, who and basic tenents
Glasser
-meet basic needs w/o hurting self or others
-focus client on present behavior & responsibility for actions
-move from failure identity to success identity
Five basic needs according to reality therapy
-Glasser
1)survival
2)power
3)belonging
4)freedom
5)fun
success vs. failure identity
Glasser - Reality therapy
success identity: ind is able to meet basic needs responsibly
failure identity: ind meets needs in irresponsible manner
Transactional Analysis, who and goals?
-Berne
-alter maladaptive life positions and life scripts, and integrate three ego states (child, adult, parent)
script
Transactional Analysis
-characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes.
-unhealthy scripts lead to maladaptive behavior
complementary transaction
communication met with appropriate response (ie. adult-adult)
crossed transaction
original communication elicits response from inappropriate ego state (ie. adult-child)
ulterior transaction
dual messages from one of the communicators, ie. multiple ego states
-basis of "games" where use adult transaction to criticize (what time is it? to someone who is late)
feminist therapy, basic assumption & how conflict arises?
assumption that social roles and socialization are important determinants of behavior
-conflicts arise from social role conflicts (ex. sexism and gender oppression)
Emphasis of feminist therapy
1) empowerment
2) "demystified" relationship bt client/therapist, equalizing power through self-disclosure of therapist and encouraging client to set own goals
feminist vs. non-sexist therapy
feminist therapy incorproates feminist values, more political, and views contributing to political change as therapy goal
Feminist object-relations theory
focus on mother-child attachment differences bt genders. Changes in gender relations will occur with equality in responsibility for child-rearing.
Self-in-relation theory
one's sense of self depends on how one connects with others.
-relational self developed through internalization of caretaker's empathic attitude
-goal of therapy to increase interpersonal connections, esp. mother-daughter
Cognitive Techniques
1. eliciting automatic thoughts
2. Decatastrophizing - "what if"
3. Reattribution - consider alt.
4. Redefining
Evaluation of Cognitive Therapy
Research show CT equal or superior to antidepressant drugs (yet, combined tx most effective)
differences between RET and CT (Ellis vs. Beck)
RET: irrational thoughts lead to maladaptive behavior
CT: thoughts dysfunctional if interefere w/functioning, not necc. irrational
RET: more behavioral, therapist challenge directly vs. allow px to test beliefs on own (CT)
Narrowing
stimulus control technique
restricting target beh to limited set of stimuli (ex. obese: eat only at dinner table at certain time)
stimulus control techniques most effective when?
When implemented at the BEGINNING of a response chain
stress inoculation training useful for treating what?
aggressive behavior and impulsive anger
Three factors in hypnosis
1. absorption
2. dissociation
3. suggestibility
Hypnosis helpful in treating what?
dissociative disorders, PTSD, self-control disorders (smoking/overeating), phobic disorders
Hypnosis contraindicated in tx of what?
psychotic disorders, paranoid, obsessive-compulsive personality traits, severely depressed and manic px
Hypnosis most effective when?
-client high level of ability to be hypnotized
-goal is to build sense of control over emotional/behavioral exp
biofeedback effectiveness
-found no more effective then less costly tx like relaxation
-tx of choice for fecal incontinence and Raynaud's disease
What is EMG and what used for?
-Electromyograph biofeedback
-measure muscle tension (M)
-used treat tension headaches
paradoxical intention
-instruct px to do what they fear (ex. insomniacs to stay awake)
-circumvents anticipatory anxiety
Change model, who & stages?
Prochaska & DiClemente
1. precontemplation
2. contemplation
3. preparation
4. action
5. maintenance
Motivational interviewing, who & what?
-Miller and Rollnick ("roll w/it")
-help move ppl through change stages
positive vs. negative feedback in systems theory
positive: disruption of family's homeostasis
negative: restores comfortable equilibrium
(counterintuitive!)
metacommunication vs. double-bind communication
metacommunication is the implicit non-verbal message intended (could qualify/enhance/contradict), contradictory messages include double-bind communication (two aspects of same message)
symmetrical communications
equality between communicators
can lead to competition and conflict when each vies for control
complementary communications
inequality - dominant role and subordinate role - ex. parent/child or therapist/client
Extended family therapy, who & what?
-Bowen
-included extended family in system
-family dysfunction part of "intergenerational process"
Goal of extended family therapy and methods?
-Bowen
-goal: differentation of self
-methods: genogram, "therapeutic triangle"
Structural Family Therapy, who and what?
-Minuchin
-family is a complex, underfunctioning system
-undermining homeostasis will move system toward change
"Joining" in Structural Family Therapy involves what?
mimesis - adopting family's style and language
tracking - identifying family's values and history
Restructuring techniques
1. enactment
2. reframing
3. blocking
Strategic Family Therapy, who and what?
-Haley
-therapy is power struggle bt family and therapist
-focus on current problem, correct problem will improve family system
paradoxical directive
-method of strategic family therapist
-directive to engage in symptomatic behavior
-harnesses resistance to directive of therapist to influence change
circular questioning
-method of strategic FT
-ask family members about relationships of each
Operant Interpersonal Therapy, who and what?
Stuart
-marital therapy based on operant conditioning and social exchange theory
-increasing positive reinforcements and exhanges
composition of groups with regard to children
-avoid age differences of more than two years
-same gender
What is most important group composition factor?
intelligence level - should be same
disagreement between co-therapists in group, when okay/not okay
not during first few meetings, when cohesive enough to tolerate
According to yalom, which 3 therapeutic factors are most important?
interpersonal learning
cartharsis
cohesiveness
primary goals of crisis intervention
1. immediate symptom reduction
2. increase coping skills
3. restoration to previous level of functioning
4. prevention of further psychological breakdowns
stages of crisis intervention
formulation - identify crisis and reactions
implementation - develop goals & implement techniques
termination - goals achieved
brief psychotherapy vs. crisis intervention
brief psychotherapy is similar to crisis intervention but includes encouragement of insight
primary goals of brief psychotherapy
1. remove/reduce px mostsevere symptoms quickly
2. restore client to previous emotional equilibrium
3. help px acquire insight and skills so cope better in future
what is the primary change strategy in brief therapy?
therapeutic alliance
solution-focused therapy's view of resistance
do not support this notion
believe therapist take resistance as lesson on how to better help client
Elevations on MMPI L Scale
perfectionistic self-image
favorable light
Elevations on MMPI F Scale
infrequently endorsed by normals
looking bad, admitting faults, cry for help
Elevations on MMPI K Scale
defensiveness/guardedness
deny problems
low score=low self-image
high score=high defenses/armor
Validity of Rorschach
larger validity coefficients than MMPI when using objective criterion variables (ex. Exner scoring)
Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) measures interest in what three ways?
1. general occupational themes - Holland - RIASEC
2. basic interest scales - #1 broken down specifically i.e. realistic=agri, military
3. occupational scale scores - career choices of those interests
Name 6 general occupational themes in SCII derived from Holland's work.
RICE AS
Realistic
Investigative
Conventional
Enterprising
Artistic
Social
Occupational scales of SCII developed using what?
Empirical criterion keying (like MMPI)
Predictive validity of Strong scales
.30 predictive validity
-predicts occupational satisfaction/choice rather than success
Kuder vs. Strong
1. Kuder assesses general interests while Strong relates interest to specific occupations
2. Kuder uses content validity vs. empirical criterion keying
Halstead-Reitan
Neuropsyc battery
LONG - 4-5 hours
Luria Nebraska
Neuropsyc battery
Bender Gestalt
-screening device for brain damage and psychiatric disorders
-high validity
Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA)
2-10 years old
identifies deficiencies in communication process (i.e. channels, processes & levels)
Stroop Color Word Test
screening device for neurological damage, especially frontal lobe
(shift set, inhibition)
Smith, Glass & Miller concluded what about therapy effectiveness?
-therapy better than no therapy
-effect size .85 (better than 85% of controls)
-no particular therapy better than another
Conclusion Eysenk drew about therapy effectiveness?
-1952: therapy not significant from no therapy
-1985: behavior therapy superior to placebo or no therapy
placebo effect
-show more improvement than no tx at all, but not more than those actually receiving tx
What variables best predict therapy outcome?
client variables > therapist or tx variables
relationship between client-therapist expectations and outcome
cosistently shown when px expectations addressed and made to conform to therapist expectations then probability of positive outcome is increased
which therapist variable most affects treatment outcome?
competence, although overall it is unclear exactly what variable or combo of variables most affects tx outcome
which treatment variable most important?
working/therapeutic alliance
Weisz et. al.'s major findings regarding tx outcome with children/Adol
1. girls respond better, esp. adol girls
2. behavioral > non-behavioral
3. effect size .71
Howard's three phase model of psychotherapy effectiveness
1. remoralization - improvement in px hopelessness
2. remediation - symptomatic relief
3. rehabilitation - improvement in functioning
emic
-studying culture from within it
-approached advised for therapists
member
etic
studying culture as an observer/outsider
tourist
cultural encapsulation
opposite of cultural-competent
Berry's Acculturation Model
-based on retention of minority and maintenance of mainstream culture
1. Integration - high both
2. Assimilation - low minority/high mainstream
3. Separation - high minority/low mainstream
4. Marginalization - low both
high context communication
-few words but high meaning
-relies heavily on codes, non-verbal, culturally-defined meanings
-most minority communication
-AA, His, NA
low-context communication
-many words to convey meaning
-Anglo-American communication
cultural overgeneralization
when therapist assumes all px presenting problems are diectly related to px's culture vs. other factors
-leads to premature drop out and underutilization
healthy cultural paranoia
normal (nonpathological) response of minorities to oppression and racism
utilization of mental health services by minorities
-over represented in inpx, but under represented in outpx
-In outpx, relative to proportions in pop, AA were overrep while His, Asians, whites underrep
-AA less positive outcomes and terminate more quickly
-utilization related to # of minority on staff
Stages of the Minority Identity Development Model
1. Conformity
2. Dissonance
3. Resistance and Immersion
4. Introspection
5. Synergistic Articulation and Awareness
don't CONFORM to DIS, RESIST IMMediately this INTROduction to SYN.
White Racial Identity, Helms
racism to non-racist identity
1. Contact
2. Disintegration
3. Reintegration
4. Pseudo-Independence
5. Immersion-Emersion
6. Autonomy
Contact (lenses)
DR (see the Dr.)
Pseudo-Eyes
Immersion-Emersion (cleaning)
Autonomy (see on own)

Unique issues working with African-American clients
-problem-oriented
-time-limited
-practical vs. emotional probs
-systems approach
Nigrescence/Black Racial Identity Model (Cross)
-process of becoming black
1. Pre-Encounter
2. Encounter
3. Immersion-Emersion
4. Internalization
5. Internalization-Commitment
Put Emphasis Immediately Into Committment
Unique issues working with Hispanic clients
-go to physician for emotional concerns
-active, goal-oriented
-family importance
-bilingualism
Cuento therapy
reading cuents (folktales) and leading group discussion about them, focusing on behavior of character and morals of story
-original form - cultural role models
-rewritten to reflect mainstream culture - learn strategies for coping in different culture
Unique aspects of therapy with Native Americans
-tribe, family system
-non-directive, NOT solution focused
-history-oriented
-accepting/cooperative approach
Unique aspects of therapy with Asian Americans
-direct, structured, short-term
-couched w/i academic/vocational issue
-helpful to discuss what to expect from therapy, roles, and need for verbal disclosure
Unique aspects of therapy with elderly
-systems approach
-identity transitions
-satisfying relationships
-normalizing depression in older pop
-use of reminiscence therapy - life review of successes/shortcomings and stresses resolution of conflicts
McLaughlin's Homosexuality Identity Formation
1. Isolation
2. Alienation/Shame
3. Rejection of self
4. Passing as straight
5. Consolidating self identity
6. Acculturation
7. Integrating self/public identity
8. Pride and synthesis
Erickson's model of hypnotherapy
-finding strategy necessary to get px to give up symptom
-ex. paradoxical directive
stages of Rorschach administration
1. introduction
2. instructional
3. response
4. inquiry