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94 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 assumptions of Psychodynamic Theory?
1. Beh motivated by unconsicous processes
2. Early dev has effect on adult functioning
3. Universal principles explain personality and beh
4. Insight into unconscious key to psychotherapy
Name the 7 Psychodynamic therapists
1. Freud - psychoanalysis
2. Adler - individual psych
3. Jung - analytic psychotherapy
4. Neo-Freudian
5. Ojbect Relations Theory
6. Brief psychodynamic therapy/Interpersonal Therapy
Freud - believes humans are determined what 5 things?
1. irrational forces
2. unconscious motivations
3. biological needs & drives
4. instinctual need & drives
5. psychosexual events in 1st 6 years of life
Freud - essential component to personality theory
= unpleasant feeling linked with excitement of Autonomic nervous system
- alerts EGO to internal (conflict bet ID & SUPEREGO) and external (actual environ threat) threats
Freud - ID
(a) serves as:
(b) operates on what principle
(c) tension reduced by:
(a) serves as source of all psychic energy
(b) operates on PLEASURE principle
(c) tension reduced by REFLEX ACTIONS (sneezing) and PRIMARY THINKING (dream, hallucination, mental image)
Freud - EGO
(a) age developed at:
(b) operates on what principle
(c) tension reduced by:
(d) primary task:
(a) developed at age 6 months becuz ID can't gratify all needs
(b) operates on REALITY principle
(c) tension reduced by SECONDARY THINKING (realistic, rational thinking)
Freud - EGO

what are Defense Mechanisms?
Defense Mechanism
= when EGO can't resolve conflict
- operate at UNconscious level
- serve to deny or distort reality
- are adaptive becuz they reduce anxiety
Freud - defense mechanism:

what is repression?
= when ID kept unconscious by excluding them from awareness
= most basic defense mechanism becuz it's the goal of all defense mech and foundation of all neuroses
Freud - defense mechanism

what is the goal of all def mech?

what is the foundation of all neuroses?
Freud - defense mechanism

What is reaction formation?
Reaction Formation
= avoiding anxiety-evoking instinct by expressing OPPOSITE

(a) age this is developed?
(b) purpose?

(a) developed bet age 4 and 5
(b) purpose
= internalize society's values and standards
= blocks ID's socially unacceptable drives
What is Freud's Developmental theory?
(a) focus on?
(b) how many and label psychosexual stages
Freud Developmental Theory
(a) focus on sexual drives of ID
(b) forms the personality in childhood
- Oral
- Anal
- Phallic
- Latency
- Genital
Freud - where does maladaptive behavior / psychopathology come from?
from UNCONSCIOUS conflict during childhood
Freud - explain phobia?
Freud - phobia comes from displacement of anxiety onto object or event
Freud - explain depression?
Freud - depression comes from object loss + anger toward object turned INWARD
Freud - explain mania?
Freud - mania comes from defense against libidinal or aggressive urges that threaten to overwhelm EGO
Freud - what is goal of therapy?
to reduce or remove symptoms by bringing unconscious into conscious
Freud - What is the primary therapy technique?
- assumption of analysis = PSYCHIC DETERMINISM (= belief that all beh is meaningful and psychological trauma is expression of UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVES
Freud - what are the targets of analysis in therapy?
1. free association = clients says what comes to mind; allows unconsc to consc
2. dream analysis = dreams are "royal road to unconscious"
3. resistances = when client realizes unconsc coming out, may resist confrontation to avoid anxiety
4. transference = therapist's neutrality allows client to project onto therapist's those feelings client had for someone else
Freud - what are some RESISTANCE ACTIONS of clients which are targets of analysis in therapy
- missed appointments
- being late
- avoiding certain topics
- silent in free association
Freud - what are some TRANSFERENCE ACTIONS of clients
- sexual advances
- dependency on therapist
- competitive with therapist or other clients
Freud - transference

(a) What is POSITIVE and NEGATIVE transference?
(b) what is transference neurosis?
(c) what is countertransference?
(a) POSITIVE transference = quick improvement in Sx early in therapy
NEGATIVE transference = form of resistence
(b) neurosis = most intense - client confuses therapist with someone else
(c) countertransference = therapist inappropriately reacts to client
Freud - What does Analysis consist of?
1. clarification - restating words and feelings
2. confrontation - make statements to have client see things new way
3. interpretation - connect beh adn Sx to unconscious
Freud - What are signs of improvement in therapy?
1. catharsis - release of emotions when unconsc out
2. insight - insight into rel bet beh and unconsc
2. working thru - final stage - bring insight into personality
Freud - What is current status of therapy?
1. focus on therapist-client relship
2. transference NOT a distortion but client's rxn to therapist's actual beh and try to fill beh with personal meaning
3. countertranference now a potential source of client info and contributor to curative process
Adler - what is his approach?
Adler approach --> TELEOLOGICAL APPROACH = beh motivated by person's future goals
Adler - what are the key components of personality theory? (3)
1. interiority feelings - dev in child due to real/perceived bio, psych or social weaknesses
2. inherent striving for superiority
3. style of life and social interest - way person compensates for inferiority
Adler - what are healthy and unhealthy lifestyles differentiated?
by social interests (goals):
- healthy goals = optimism, confidence, contribute to welfare of others
- unhealthy goals = self-centered, competitive, personal power
Jung - what is beh determined by?
past events and future goals
Jung - personality theory - what is conscious and unconscious?
conscious = oriented to exteral world, governed by EGO, is person's thoughts, ideals, feelings, sensory perceptions, memory

unconscious = is either PERSONAL (experiences once in consc now in unconsc)
or COLLECTIVE (storage of latent memory traces passed from generation to generation)
Jung - what are archetypes? and give examples
= collective unconsciousness which are 'primordial images' that cause people to exp & understand phenomena

= self(a striving for unity of diff parts of a personality
= persona / public mask
= shadow - dark side of personality
= anima - FEM side of personality
= aminus - MASCU side
Jung - what are 2 attitudes of personality?
Extraversion and Introversion
Jung - what are 4 psychological functions of personality?
- all are UNconscious
Jung - when is most interest in growth
mid 30's
Jung - what is wisdom?
when person's interests are spiritual and philosophical
Jung - where does maladaptive behavior / psychopathology come from?
unconscious messages that something is wrong with him
Jung - what is goal of therapy
goal = bridge gap bet conscious and unconscious (personal and collective)
Jung - what is therapy?
interprete unconscious through DREAM ANALYSIS
Jung - what is transference?
personal and collective unconsciousness
Jung - how do you use countertranference?
to see what is coming in therapy (unlike Frued's thinking)
Jung - what is the analysis?
look only at the PRESENT

past only seen to understand present
Jung - describe the therapist-client relship
EGALITARIAN - face to face setting
Neo-Freudians - what are their focuses?
Neo-Freudian - Horney

where does maladaptive behavior / psychopathology come from?
like Freud - anxiety root of neurosis
unlike Freud - anxiety due to child's INTERPERSONAL rel with parents and others
Neo-Freudian - Sullivan

where does maladaptive behavior / psychopathology come from?
introduces COGNITIVE factors in personality development
- says 3 cog experiences:
1. prototaxic mode = 1st few mos of life = discrete series of momentary states
2. parataxic mode = see cause rel bet events occurring at same time
3. syntaxic mode = end of 1st year = logical, sequential, internally consistent & modifiable thinking

maladaptive beh = parataxic distortions (misperceptions due to staying in parataxic stage)
Neo-Freudian - Sullivan

1. prototaxic mode
1. prototaxic mode = 1st few mos of life = discrete series of momentary states
Neo-Freudian - Sullivan

2. parataxic mode
2. parataxic mode = see cause rel bet events occurring at same time
Neo-Freudian - Sullivan

3. syntaxic mode
3. syntaxic mode = end of 1st year = logical, sequential, internally consistent & modifiable thinking
Neo-Freudian - Sullivan

What is his therapy ideas?
- sees therapist as both participant/observer and expert in interpersonal rel
- therapy successful to point that client is aware of one's interpersonal relshps
Object Relations theory

what is object seeking?
- is the relationshp with others
- is the basic inborn drive
Object Relations theory - Mahler

what are his developmental phases?
1. Normal autism - 1 mos - oblivious to external environ
2. Normal symbiosis - 2-3 mos - fused with mom; no diff bet I and not-I
3. Seperation-individualization - 4 mos - actual dev of object relations

- object constancy = see others as separated and yet related
Object Relations theory

What is maladaptive beh and psychopathology
- due to abnormalities in early object relations
- due to SPLITTING = unable to split oneself and others into good and bad (e.g., Kernberg)

- Mahler - see prob in separation-individuation stage

Object Relations theory

What does therapy entail?
support, acceptance to restore client's ability to relate to others in meaningful, realistic ways
Self-psyhology therapists

what is the focus?
early childhood factors that affect dev of cohesive sense of self
Self-psyhology therapists

how is personality formed?
based on HEALTHY NARCISSISM = ability of parent to provide child with factors realted to sense of self
Self-psyhology therapists =

what is maladaptive beh?
when child forms GRANDIOSE SELF = parents fail to give child needs and need for self-love; parents are unempathetic
Self-psychology therapists =

what is therapy?
clients needs environ to make up for early deprivation and promote personal growth of sense of self

- primary tool = EMPATHY --> let client exp and express unfulfilled narcissistic needs
IPT (interpersonal therapy)

what are the 4 common characteristics of IPT or brief psychodynamic therapy?
1. therapy is time limited (6-30 sessions)
2. goals focussed on specific Sx or issue
3. interpretations focus on present situations/beh
4. transference neurosis discouraged and positive transference encouraged
IPT (interpersonal therapy)

is influenced by what theories?
1. Meyer's psychobiological approach to psyschiatric disorders
2. Sullivan's interpersonal theory
3. Bowlby's attachment theory
IPT (interpersonal therapy)

What are 2 common elements of this therapy?
1. psychodynamic

2. cog-beh therapy
IPT (interpersonal therapy)

what is maladaptive beh - depression?
lack of strong attachment in early life
IPT (interpersonal therapy)

what is goal of therapy?
focus on current social relshps

goal = Sx reduction and improved interpersonal functioning
IPT (interpersonal therapy)

what is the first goal?
education on depression, instill hope, pharmacotherapy
IPT (interpersonal therapy)

what are 4 areas of improving relationships?
1. grief
2. interpersonal role disputes
3. role transitions
4. interpersonal deficits
IPT (interpersonal therapy)

what are therapy techniques used?
1. encourage affect
2. communication analysis
3. modeling
4. role playing
Humanistic Psychotherapies

what are the 5 common characteristics?
1. all use phenomenological approach = to understand client, need to understand his subjective experience or PHENOMENAL FIELD
2. focus on current beh
3. belief in client's inherent potential for self-determination or self actualization
4. therapy = considerate humankind rel bet you & client (being autehentic/collaborative/egalitarian)
5. reject traditional assessment and diagnostic labels
Humanistic Psychotherapies

what are the 4 types of these therapies?
1. person-centered therapy
2. gestalt therapy
3. existential therapy
4. reality therapy
Humanistic Psychotherapies

what's another name for this?
third force
Person-centered therapy (Roger)

what is the assumption?
people have SELF-ACTUALIZING TENDENCY = which motivates and guides them to grow
Person-centered therapy (Roger)

what is his personality theory?
central is SELF (I or ME) and perceptions of rel bet I and others

to self actualize --> self should be unified, organized, whole
Person-centered therapy (Roger)

what is maladaptive beh?
- self is disorganized
- INCONGRUENCE bet self and experience
- anxiety = feel unified self is threatened
- to alleviate anxiety --> client would use PERCEPTUAL DISTORTION or DENIAL defenses
Person-centered therapy (Roger)

what is the therapy goal?
Person-centered therapy (Roger)

what are the therapy techniques?
set up the right environment called FACILITATIVE CONDITIONS (research found to dev therapeutic alliance):
1. UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD (respect) - genuine care of client; affirm worth, accept without judgement

2. GENUINESS (congruence) - be authentic, honest when client is ready

3. EMPATHETIC UNDERSTANDING - ability to see world as client does (nod, eye contact, reflect feelings) - NB for self-disclosure and positive therapy
Gestalt Therapy - Perls

what is his premise?
all capable of assuming personal responsibility for thoughts, feelings and actions and living as INTEGRATED WHOLE
Gestalt Therapy - Perls

what are the 5 basic concepts?
1. all tend to seek closure
2. person's gestalts (=perceptions of parts as wholes) reflect current need
3. person's beh is a whole that is more than sum of parts
4. beh can be only understood in its context
5. person exp world according to principle of figure/ground
Gestalt Therapy - Perls

what is the personality theory consist of?
1. self = promotes inherent tendency for self actualization
2. self-image = darker side = stops growth and self-actualization by imposing external standards

personality depends on early interactions with environment
Gestalt - Perls

What is maladaptive beh?
is a GROWTH DISORDER = abandons self ro self-image and therefore no integration and no homeostasis
Gestalt - Perls

What are 4 boundary disturbances bet self and external environ?
1. INTROJECTION - accepts whole without understanding; overly compliant in therapy
2. PROJECTION - disowns self and assigns to others (paranoia)
3. RETROFLECTION - do to self what he wants to do to others (anger inward)
4. CONFLUENCE - no boundary bet self & environ - feels guilt or resentment; no tolerance for dif bet self and others
Gestalt - Perls

what is the goal?
help client achieve INTEGRATION of self to become whole
Gestalt - Perls

what is therapy techniques?
1. NO QUESTIONS - client discouraged from asking
2. USE I LANGUAGE - client encouraged to say I to assume responsibility
3. GAMES OF DIALOGUE (ENACTMENT) - empty-chair technique - role play of opposites of his personality
4. DREAMWORK - reoccuring dream is parts of self not accepted or disowned which dreamwork helps to recover
Existential Therapy

What is the focus? Assumptions?
focus = human conditions of depersonalization, loneliness, isolation

assume - people not static but constant state of BECOMING
Existential Therapy

what is maladaptive beh?
is natural human condition
Existential Therapy

what is the goal of therapy? and technique used?
goal = overcome feelings so they can live more committed, self aware, in meaningful way

- therapist-client rel MOST NB
- help client recog their freedom and accept respon to change self

- ex PARADOXICAL INTENTION = used to lower fear - focus on fear situation in exaggerated and humorous way
Reality Therapy - Glasser

what is it influenced by?
What is the premise?
influence = control theory (beh is purposeful and originates from within person)

premise - people can take control of their own lives
Reality Therapy - Glasser

what is personality theory?
people have innate needs:
4 psychological (belonging, power, freedom, fun)
1 physical - survival

successful identity = person satisfies his needs in responsible ways (not infringe on others)
Reality Therapy - Glasser

what is maladaptive beh?
FAILURE IDENTITY - person satisfies his needs in irrisponsible ways
Reality Therapy - Glasser

what is goal of therapy?
goal = help client id responsible ways to satisfy needs
What are the 6 differences bet traditional therapies and reality therapy?
1. rejects medical model of mental illness
2. focus on current beliefs & beh
3. transference seen as bad to tx
4. focus on conscious processes
5. focus on VALUE JUDGEMENTS - what is right and wrong
6. teaches client beh to satisify their needs
Reality Therapy - Glasser

what is therapy techniques?
- thrpst-client relshp critical
- therapist must be warm, respect, caring
- therapist must model responible beh
- techniques: role playing, systematic planning, exploring needs & perceptions
Family therapy

what are influences on this therapy?
1 extension of psychoanalytic from individual to entire family
2 growth of child guidance movement and marital counseling
3 general systems theory
4 cybernetics
Family Therapy - General Systems Theory

(a) What is GST?
(b) What is GST influenced
(c) Who is GST proposed by?
(a) GST -
- means system (entity that is maintained by interaction of its components)
- study the interactions in their context
- family seen as OPEN SYSTEM = always receiving input from and gives to environ and is able to change
(b) HOMEOSTASIS = family acts to keep equilibruim
(c) Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Communication/Interaction Family Therapy

What is link bet double-bind communication and schizophrenia
- double-bind=conflicting negative injunctions with one being verbal and other nonverbal and person not able to comment or seek help (e.g., do that, you are punished, don't do that and you are punished)
what are assumptions of double-bind communication?
1. all beh is communicated
2. communication has report function (infor) and command function --> conflict when both are contradictory
3. communication either symmetrical (equal bet people but then one-upmanship) or complementary (inequality-one dominant)
4. principle of equifinality = whereever chance occurs, result is same
Communication/interaction family therapy

how is maladaptive beh seen?
there is circular model of causality = Sx is both cause and effect of dysfunctional communication (i.e., blaming, criticizing, mindreading, overgeneralizing)