Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
...............ABNORMAL
DMS-IV-TR - when editions published
- first in 1952
- latest in 2000
...............ABNORMAL
DMS-IV-TR - how it allows for heterogenity of diagnosis
- includes polythetic criteria set for most dx - which requires client to present only subset of items of larger list
...............ABNORMAL
DMS-IV-TR - what are the 5 axis?
I - Clincil dx
II - Personality dx / Mental Retardation
III - General Medical Conditions (hearing loss)
IV -Psychosocial & Environ Problems (job, finances)
V - Global Assess of Fnctg
...............ABNORMAL
DMS-IV-TR - what is principale dx
- when both Axis I and II, then principal one is Axis I UNLES "principal dx" noted by Axis II
...............ABNORMAL
DMS-IV-TR - What is GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning)
- rank client's psych, social, occup functiong from 0 to 100
- 2 factors to GAF: Symptom severity and Level of functg
- 41-50=serious symptoms (suicide ideation) or serious impair in functg
- GAF can be given for functg for current, highest level in last year, or upon discharge
...............ABNORMAL
DMS-IV-TR - how do you show dx uncertainty
1 DX(OR CONDITION) DEFERRED - not enough info to make dx
2 SPECIFIC DX (PROVISIONAL) - tenative but not firm dx
3 [CLASS OF DX] NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED - know what class but not spcifc enough for specific dx
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - MENTAL RETARDATION - 3 dx criteria
1 subave intellectual functg (<70)
2 deficit/impair in adaptive functg in 2 areas (not age/cult, comm, self care, social, school, work, safety)
3 onset before 18
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - MENTAL RETARDATION - 4 degrees of severity
1 MILD - 50-70
2 MODERATE - 35-55
3 SEVERE - 20-40
4 PROFOUND - < than 20-25
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - MENTAL RETARDATION - early signs
- delays in motor dev
- lack of age-app interest in eviron
- no eye contact
- no response to voice/mov of others
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - MENTAL RETARDATION - etiology - genetic factors
- 30-40% unknown
- 30% alter embryonic dev
- 20% environ/other mental dis)
- 10% preg/perinatal prob
- 5% heredity
- 5% med cond in infancy (lead, malnut)
- PKU (rare recessive gene)
- detected by blood test
- if untreat-irrevis mod-prof MR, impair mot/lang dev, erratic beh
- DOWN SYNDROME-extra chrome; features(heart lesions, resp/intes defects, highr risk for Alzheimers)
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - MENTAL RETARDATION - differential dx
- Borderline Intellectual Functioning - IQ 71-80
- MR - if 71-75 AND deficits in adaptive functng
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - LEARNING DISORDER -
= achievement on test in reading, math, written substantially below (2 or more SD bet test and IQ) what is expected for age, school, IQ
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - LEARNING DISORDER - associated features
- delay in lang or mot dev
- attention/memory deficits
- low self esteem
- IQ ave to above age
- most freq comorbid dx=ADHD
- highr risk for antisocial beh
- reading prob more for boys
- LD throughout adol and adult
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - LEARNING DISORDER - etiology
- cerebellar-vestibular dysfunctn
- incomplete dominance&hemispheric abnormalities
- exposure to toxins (lead)
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - COMMUNICATION DX - types
- Expressive Lang Dx
- Mixed Receptive-Expressive Lang Dx
- Phonological Dx
- Stuttering
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - COMMUNICATION DX - stuttering - features
- disturbance in normal fluency & time patterning of speech
- age bet 2-7 - stop by 16
- 3x more in boys
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - stuttering - tx
- reduce psych stress in home
- stop reprimanding child
- reduce demands
- regulate breathing + awareness training + social sup = HABIT REVERSAL
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX -types and features
Types
- Autistic
- Retts
- Childhood Disintegrative Dx
- Asperger's Dx
Features
- impair in comm and social
and/or
- stereotyped beh
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX - Autistic Dx - features
- before age 3
1 - (at least 2)-impair in SOCIAL interaction
2 - (at least 1)-impair in COMM-speech, initiate, rep use of words
3 - (at least 1)-RESTRICTED, REPETITIVE, STEREO BEH
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX - Autistic Dx - features
- oblivious to others
- no eye contact
- 50% mute
- speech-echolalia (echo words of others); reverse of pronouns;
- narrow interests
- fascinated with inanimate obj
- strong react to environ change
- hand-flapg, rockg, sping
- 70% have MR
- earliest sign=lack of normal responsiveness to caregivers (no cuddling, smiling, respond to voice)
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX - Autistic Dx - prognosis and when best outcome
- prognosis=poor
- 30% have partial indepndce
- best outcome --> ability to comm by age 5-6 AND later onset of symptoms
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX - Autistic Dx - eitology
- brain - reduced cerebellum & enlarged ventricles
- abnorml levls of norepinephrine, serotinin, dopamine
- genes - 50-100x more in siblings, higher in twins
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX - Autistic Dx - tx
- enhance daily living, comm, social
- reduce undesirable beh
- best = beh tech - shaping; disrimination traing to improv comm
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX - Rett's dx
- normal dev until 5 mos THEN
- head grow slow
- loss of hand skills
- dev stereotype hand mov
- impair in gait or trunk mov
- loss of interest in social
- impaire lang and psychomotor dev
- ONLY IN FEMALES
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX - Childhood Disintegrative Dx
- AFTER at least 2 years of OK, dev REGRESSION in 2 areas of functng (motor, play, social, adaptive beh, lang)
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - PERVASIVE DEV DX - Asperger's Dx
- impair in social
- restricted beh/interests/act
- NO delay in lang, self help skills, cog or interest in environ
- normal IQ (but do better on verbal cog skills tests)
- may mis-dx as no dx or stubborness
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - ADHD - features
- before age 7
- at least 6 mos impair in 2 settings and at least 6 symp of INATTENTION OR HYPERACT-IMPULSIVITY
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - ADHD - 3 subtypes
Predominantly Inattentive Type (>6 of this type and < of H-I)
Predominantly Hyperactivy-Impulsive Type
Combined Type (6 or more of both Inattention and H-I)
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - ADHD - associated features
- lower IQ but intelligence ave or above ave
- poor academics-reading, LD
- social prob
- co-dx's
- 30-90% also have Conduct Dx
- 50% also have LD
- others=Oppositional Defiant Dx, Anxiety Dx, Major Depression
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - ADHD - prevalence, gender
prevalence
- 3-7% of school-age children
- 1-5% in adults
gender
- 4-9x more in boys
- equal b/g for Predom Inatten Type
- equal b/g in adulthood
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - ADHD - continuation of this as client ages
- 60% of child have ADHD as adult
- as client ages:
- decrease in gross motor act
- hyperactivity --> fidgetg; excessive talk; inner restless; overwhelmed
- impulsive --> impatient, irritable; prob with time/$; reckless drive; impulsive sex
- as adult - main feature = INATTENTION
- adults also have
- low self esteem
- social prob
- lower educ/job achievmnt
- highr risk for bipolar dx, depression, anxiety, antisocial, sub abuse
- highest risk for sub abuse in adults with ADHD = males, low SES, also have disruptive beh dx
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - ADHD - etiology
- genetic
- brain abnor-
(a) lower activity in frontal cortex, basal ganglia
(b) smaller caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, prefontal cortex
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - ADHD - theories
1 Behavioral Disinhibition Hypothesis (Barkley)
- sympts come in familiar, highly repetitive / structured, boring sit and when feedback not given (ADHD = inability to regulate beh to fit situational demands)
2 Alternative
- ADHD due to inability to regulate attention to nonrelevant stimuli & too much focus on certain stimuli to exclusion of others
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - ADHD - tx
- Ritalin (Methyphenidate)- good for 75% of cases
- combo of med with psychosocial tx (contingency management, time out)
- parental involvment - for long term effects
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Conduct Dx - features
- persistent violate rights of others and age-app social rules
- no concern for well-being of others
- blame others (little/no guilt)
- hostile attribution bias
- at least 3 in last 12 mos of: agg to ppl/animls; destroy property; lie/steal; serious violated rules
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Conduct Dx - 2 subtypes
Childhood-onset type- < age 10 - higher agg and risk for APD and Sub-related dx
Adolescent-onset type - > age 10
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Conduct Dx - etiology - MOFFIT
Life-course-persistent type
- due to neurological impair; difficult temperament; adverse environ
Adol-limted type
- due to maturity gap bet bio maturatino and lack of opport for adult privileges
- beh usually done with peers; inconsistent across settings
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Conduct Dx - tx
- better to target preadol and involve family
- replace punishment with time out, response cost
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Oppositional Defiant dx
- recurring negativistic, defiant, hostile beh to authority figures
- loses temper
- argues with adults
- defies/challenges rules
- deliberately annoy ppl
- blame others
- angry/resentful
- spiteful/vindictive
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Pica
- eating of nonnutritive substances for at least 1 month w/o aversion to food
- onset bet 1-2 years
- also in pregnant women
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Tic Dx
- sudden, rapid, recurrent, stereotype mov or vocalization
- motor - eye blinking, facial grimace, jumping, smelling, echokinesis (copy other's mov)
- vocal - grunting, snorting, barking, echolalia, coprolalia (swear), palilalia (repeat own sounds/words)
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Tourette's Dx
- 1 vocal and multi motor tics
- before age 18
- comorbid dx = OCD, hyperactivity, impulsivity, distractability
- tx = haloperidol, pimozide - good for 80%
- etiology - related to excessive dopamine
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Enuresis
- repeated urine
- at least 2x/week for 3 mos after age 5
- no due to medical condition
- tx = night alarm (bell&pad or moisture alarm) better than IMIPRAMINE or DESMOPRESSIN in long term
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Separation Anxiety Dx
- dev inapprop, excessive anxiety when sep from home or attachment figures
- at least 4 weeks BEFORE age 18
- must have at least 3 of:
- excessive distress when sep
- presistent fear of alone
- physical complaints when sep
- often come from close, warm families - precipated by major life stress
- often school refusal + physical symptoms - best to send back (BUT if this seen in adolecent = most likely sign of depression or dx)
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - Reactive Attachment Dx
- disturbed and dev inapprop social relatedness in most sessions BEFORE age 5
- evidence of pathogenic care (neglect, freq change)
- Inhibited Type = fail to initiate/respond to social, beh is inhibited, hypervigilant, ambilvalent
- Disinhibited Type = indiscriminate social; lack of choice of attachment figure
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - disclosure with medical conditions to children
- use open comm and early in med condition
- use dev-approp lang and procedures
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - talking about med procedures to children
- use cog-beh tech to reduce anxiety and pain caused
- provide info on procedure
- modeling, reinforcement, breathing, emotive imagery, beh rehearsal
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - stats on children hospitalized
- at risk for emotional/beh dx
- dx due to child's sep from family
- best to increase visitation and roomg-in for families
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - when hard to get compliance from children for medical procedures
- lack of compliance due to
- lack of knowledge/skill
- parent-child conflict
- comm diff
- dev issues
- more in adolescents - due to concerns of peer acceptance, reduced conformity to rules, ? credibility of med staff, reduced parental supervision
-
...............ABNORMAL
CHILD DX - types of school prob for children with medical conditions
- more school prob
- for cancer treatments - found deficits in both neurocognitive functioning and learning disabilities