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23 Cards in this Set

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Name four facultatively anaerobic enterobacteria normally found in the intestines.
Escherichia
Klebsiella
Proteus
Morganella
Define GASTRITIS, GASTROENTERITIS, and COLITIS
GASTRITIS: inflam of stomach, pain in upper abd. and bleeding
GASTROENTERITIS: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, abd crmps
COLITIS: Colon, Damage to intestinal wall, stool c/ blood/mucus
Name the organism that causes TYPHOID FEVER.
Salmonella typhi
What are the Sx of Salmonella typhi?
High fever s/ diarrhea, constipation, tired confused, headaches
How does one become a carrier of Salmonella typhi?
Colonization of the gall bladder
Which species generally cause Salmonellosis? How do you aquire these?
S. enteriditis, S. choleraesuis

Usually consuming contamintaed poultry, eggs, and dairy
What are the most common species that cause shigellosis?
Shigella dysentariae
S. sonnei
S. flexnerii
How is shigellosis transmitted?
Fecal-oral route; live on long time on fomites
What are the virulence factors of Shigella?
Adhesions: attach to colon cell
Escapes phagocytosis
Shiga toxin
What is the tx of Shigella?
Fluid therapy
Cephalosporin
What lab tests are used to distinguish b/t enteric bacteria?
Differenatial mediums: MacConkey
Carbohydrate fermentation
Other: H2S, Citrate, Indole, Urea
How are Vibrio species distinguished from Enterobacteria? How is there shape distinct? Where is it found?
OXIDASE +
Curved, gram negative bacilli
Estuarine/marine environments
What are the two main virulence factos of Vibrio cholera? What is the mechanism of the toxin?
Cholera Toxin & Adhesions (tcp)
Binds to GM1 receptors in intestine->A subunit internalized->activated adenylate cyclases->cAMP
What are the characteristic sx of cholera?
Sudden nausea, vomiting, abd pain, diarrhea, RICE-H20 stools; act on small intestine
What is the tx for Cholera?
IV fluids
Oral 2% glucose
Antibiotics: cephalosporins
Vaccines: killed bacteria
What type of disease is caused by V. parahaemolyticus? How is it transmitted?
Self-limiting, Explosive, Watery Diarrhea

Eating raw/imporperly cook seafood
What type of infections are caused by V. vulnificus? How is it transmitted?
Gangrenous wounds, gastroenteritis

Ingestion of raw osyters, open wounds
What is the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the US?
Camplyobacter
g- bacilli, comma shaped
What are the reservoirs for C. jejuni? How are they acquired?
zoonotic, usually poultry
infected from contaminated food/water
Which organism cause peptic ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori
spiral, gram negative bacilli
What are H. pylori's virulence factors?
Urease
HspB
Adhesions
Flagella
What is an non-invasive dx tool used to dx H. pylori?
Urea breath test

Ureases hydrolyzes urea, releasing ammonia and carbon dioxide.
What are two viral causes of gastroenteritis? What are the txs available?
Rotavirus (rehydradation)
Norovirus (self-limiting)