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25 Cards in this Set

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What are the embryological origins of the 2 main layers of the adrenal gland?
1) Adrenal cortex - coelomic mesoderm.
2) Adrenal medulla - neural crest.
Which set of arteries supply the adrenal glands?
Superior, middle, and inferior suprarenal arteries.
What blood vessel system allows hormonal communication between the adrenal cortex and medullary?
Adrenal portal system.
What types of capillaries are in the adrenal gland?
Fenestrated with diaphragms, and a continuous basal lamina.
What does the zona fasciculata look like histologically?
Light-staining and spongy in appearance because of the lipid droplets; straight columns.
What affects the rhythmic, pulsatile bursts of ACTH/Cortisol release?
Various stress, disease.
What kind of pigment granules may be found in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex?
Lipofuscin granules.
What is Conn's Syndrome?
Overproduction of aldosterone.
How would you describe the adrenal medulla, relative to the autonomic nervous system?
Modified sympathetic postganglionic neurons that have lost dendrites and axons.
What do the cells of the adrenal medulla look like?
Very inconsistent polyhedral shape, bubbly. Use this layer to ID the reticularis.
What do granules produced in the adrenal medulla contain?
1) Catecholamines (epinephrine, some norepinephrine)
2) Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (converts dopamine to NE)
3) Chromogranins (soluble polypeptides bound to catecholamines)
What is pheochromocytoma?
Tumor of the adrenal gland causing hypersecretion of epinephrine.
Each islet of langerhans is surrounded by _____________.
A rich network of fenestrated capillaries with diaphragms, and a continuous basal lamina.
What is the function of autonomic nerve fibers in the pancreatic islets?
Regulated insulin and glucagon secretion.
What are the 4 types of cells located in the pancreas, and what do they secrete?
1) Alpha - Somatostatin
2) Beta - Insulin
3) Delta - Somatostatin
4) F - Pancreatic polypeptide (rare)
What are the characteristics of an inactive thyroid follicle?
Squamous cell lining with abundant colloid.
What are the characteristics of a stimulated thyroid follcile?
Cuboidal cell lining with less colloid.
What types of capillaries are found in the thyroid gland?
Fenestrated with diaphragms and continuous basal lamina.
What do parafollicular "C" cells of the thyroid produce?
Clacitonin.
What is Hashimoto's disease?
Antibodies are produced that attack the thyroid gland preventing its function - hypothyroidism.
What types of cells are found in the parathyroid gland?
Chief and oxyphil cells.
What do chief cells of the parathyroid gland produce? What does it regulate?
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH). Plasma Calcium levels increase.
What is the embryological orgin of the pineal gland?
Neural ectoderm.
What is brain sand?
Calcified deposits marking the skull midline, found in the pineal gland.
What cells are responsible for producing melatonin?
Pinealocytes of the pineal gland.