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39 Cards in this Set

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Certain hormones made by the adrenal gland coordinate the body’s response to various kinds of ________ in order to ....
- stress,

-protect the body during deviations from the optimal baseline.
Some adrenal hormones dampen the action of _________ thereby preventing ......
- the immune system

- an excessive immune response, which might do more harm than good.
The adrenal gland is located ?
on top of the kidney
3 tissues of the Cortex from the outer most layer to the inner most layer
- Zona Glomerulosa (top)

- Zona Fasciculata (middle)

- Zona Reticularis (bottom)
tissue Layer under the cortex
Medulla
Hormones of the Zona Glomerulosa
- Mineralocorticoid
(Aldosterone)
Hormones of the Zona Fasciculata
- Glucocorticoid
(Cortisol)
Hormones of the Zona Reticularis
- Androgen (Weak)
- Dehydroepiandrosterone
(DHEA)
- Androstenedione
Hormones of the Medulla
Epinephrine
Cholesterol is a precursor
for
steroid synthesis
Conversion of cholesterol to dehydrocholesterol in
the skin is required for
- Vitamin D synthesis.
Sources of Cholesterol
- Cholesterol can be derived from the diet; it is transported to cells in
association with lipoproteins, e.g., LDL

-Cholesterol can be
synthesized from acetate.

-Cholesterol is stored in the cell as Cholesterol ester,

i.e., cholesterol + fatty acid (ACAT, synthesizes the cholesterol ester)


-Cholesterol is the substrate
for steroid synthesis.

The cholesterol ester must be hydrolyzed by cholesterol esterase (CE).
Cholesterol can be derived from ...?
the diet; it is transported to cells in
association with lipoproteins, e.g., LDL
Cholesterol can be synthesized from ?
acetate.
Cholesterol is stored in the cell as?
Cholesterol ester,

i.e., cholesterol + fatty acid (ACAT, synthesizes the cholesterol ester)
Cholesterol is the substrate
for?
steroid synthesis.

The cholesterol ester must be hydrolyzed by cholesterol esterase (CE).
The cholesterol ester must be hydrolyzed by ?
cholesterol esterase (CE).
What is LDL?
Low density Lipoprotein
What is CE?
cholesterol esterase
What is ACAT?
acyl-cholesterol acyl transferase
What is ACTH? Adrenocorticotropin hormone
Adrenocorticotropin hormone
ACTH stimulates cortisol synthesis by ?
inducing cholesterol esterase (CE) to hydrolyze the cholesterol ester.
After ACTH stimulates cortisol synthesis
to hydrolyze the cholesterol ester, Cholesterol moves to the ??
mitochondria to enter the pathway for steroid synthesis
Increased Cortisol Synthesis Increases ?
Blood Cortisol
Cholesterol is converted to
pregnenolone by ?
20,22-desmolase..
After Cholesterol is converted to
pregnenolone by 20,22-desmolase, Cortisol is not stored in the cell but is ?
- transported out of the cell into the circulation where it binds Transcortin
Cortisol is not stored in the cell but transported out of the cell into the
circulation where it binds ?
Transcortin
Cholesterol is converted to
pregnenolone by 20,22-desmolase.
Pregnenolone can be converted
into ?
aldosterone or androgens.
Key Mitochondrial Enzymes for Cortisol Synthesis:
- 20,22-Desmolase, required for steroid synthesis

- 17a-Hydroxylase, required for cortisol synthesis
7 steps of the Control of Glucocorticoid Synthesis
1. Stimulatory and inhibitory
input from the environment,
diet and other endocrine systems.

2. CRH (hypothalamic/PVN) stimulates ACTH secretion from pituitary corticotroph cells

3. ACTH stimulates glucocorticoid (GC) synthesis in the zona fasiculata of the adrenal cortex.

4. Cortisol (GC) is not stored in cells. A change in blood cortisol requires a change in hormone synthesis.

5.Cortisol have systemic effects on multiple body systems.

6. Feedback regulation by glucocorticoids (GC):
a. at the PVN to inhibit CRH secretion

b. at the corticotroph to inhibit secretion of ACTH.

7. Less ACTH stimulation of the adrenal cortex leads to less glucocorticoid synthesis & secretion.
What is Addison's disease?
- Adrenal gland Disease
- Hypofunction, too little cortisol
- Autoimmune disease
- Fatal if not corrected
What is Cushing’s Disease?
- Adrenal gland Disease

- Hyperfunction, too much
glucocorticoid

-Elevated ACTH
-pituitary or ectopic tumor
What are Cushing’s like symptoms?
- Prednisone (a glucocorticoid agonist) therapy; an immune suppressant and anti-inflammatory drug
Chromaffin Cells are innervated by?
- cholinergic preganglionic
fibers of the sympathetic
nervous system.
Chromaffin Cells are located?
In the adrenal medulla
What is the rate limiting enzyme of Catacholamine Synthesis?
- Tyrosine Hydroxylase
In Feedback Regulation of Epinephrine Synthesis, too Much NE inhibits?
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Activity
In regulation of Epinephrine Secretion, Depolarization
stimulates?
Ca+2 influx and exocytosis
What are the 8 Factors Stimulating Epinephrine Secretion?
-Fight or Flight
-Exercise
-Hypoglycemia
-Hypothermia
-Hypovolemia
-Trama
Pain
Anxiety