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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
lung formed by
endoderm and mesoderm. endoderm=epithelium of lungs, splanchnic mesoderm makes up cartilage, musc., blood vessels etc.
where does lung develop
outgrowth of foregut
If mother is much larger than she should be, suspect?
polyhydramnios
two types of fistula in lung development
tracheoesophageal fistula, and esophageal atresia
what is polyhydramnios
because of fistula, fluid cannot pass to stomach or intestines for absorption, and transfer through placenta to mothers blood for disposal. Fluid instead stays in the amnion = polyhydramnios = “too large for dates”
why do fistulas occur
abnormal connection between epithelia
lung development – order of structures
trachea, R&L main bronchi, lobar bronchi, many divisions, alveoli
growth of lung depends on
physical space, presence of fetal lung fluid, amniotic fluid (allows for chest expansion), fetal breathing movements, phrenic nerve innervation of diaphragm, hormonal influences
stimuli for breathing at birth
temperature, pain, and hypoxia – change in chemoreceptor sensitivity
why do lungs stay inflated
surfactant lowers surface tension, elastic tissue forces
hyaline membrane disease also known as
respiratory distress syndrome – not enough surfactant
not enough surfactant can cause
stiffer lung (low compliance), more work to breath, respiratory fatigue, alveolar volume goes down, hypoxia, acidosis, then pulmonary vasoconstriction so less blood to lungs, so pulmonary blood flow down, lung metabolism down… baby can die, both of exhaustion and asphyxiation