Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/20

Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Threats to Internal Validity
1) History
2) Maturation
3) Testing
4) Instrumentation
5) Statistical regression
6) Differential selection
7) Experimental mortality
8) Selection-maturation interaction
9) Experimental treatment diffusion
10) Compensatory rivalry by the control group
11) Compensatory equalization of treatments
12) Resentful demoralization of the control group
internal validity
the extent to which extraneous variables have been controlled by the research, so that any observed effect can be attributed solely to the treatment variable
Threats to External Validity
Population Validity
1) The extent to which one can generalize from the experimental sample to a defined population
2) The extent to which personalogical variables interact with treatment effects
Ecological Validity
1) Explicit description of the experimental treatment
2) Multiple-treatment interference
3) Hawthorne effect
4) Novelty and disruption effects
5) Experimenter effect
6) Pretest sensitization
7) Posttest sensitization
8) Interaction of history and treatment effects
9) Measurement of the dependent variable
10) Interaction of time of measurement and treatment effects
external validity
any variable other than the treatment variable that, if not controlled, con affect the experimental outcome
threat to internal validity
---------------------------
history
Experimental treatments extend over a period of time, providing opportunity for other events to occur besides the experimental treatment.
as a result of time, something, outside the organism, else may account for the results and rival the treatment (think MLKjr’s assassination during a race relation survey)
threat to internal validity
---------------------------
maturation
While the experimental treatment is in progress, physical or psychological changes in the research participants are likely to occur.
internal to the organism, hunger, fatigue, cognitive / physical maturation (pair with history)
threat to internal validity
---------------------------
differential selection
In experimental designs in which a control group is used, the effect of the treatment sometimes is confounded by differential selection of research participants for the experimental and control groups.
the two groups are not equivalent (pre-test can help overcome equivalence)
threat to internal validity
---------------------------
testing
If the pretest and posttest are similar, students might show an improvement simply as an effect of their experience with the pretest.
the pre-test cues the subjects (test-wise, learning effect, cueing effect)
threat to internal validity
---------------------------
instrumentation
A learning gain might be observed from pretest to posttest becouse the nature of the measuring instrument has changed.
(often confused with testing) the test instrument got uncalibrated; the test is causing the effect; bad tests;
threat to internal validity
---------------------------
statistical regression
Whenever a test-retest procedure is used to assess change as an effect of the experimental treatment, there is the possibility that statistical regression accounts for observed gains in learning.
mathematical truism that on repeated testing the extremes move to the means and the means move to the extremes (related to the reliability of a test) of importance when studying the extremes (handle by using a control group which should suffer the same regression)
statistical regression
the tendency for research participants whose scores fall at either extreme on a measure to score nearer the mean when the variable is measured a second time.
threat to internal validity
---------------------------
differential selection
In experimental designs in which a control group is used, the effect of the treatment sometimes is confounded by differential selection of research participants for the experimental and control groups.
threat to internal validity
---------------------------
experimental mortality
Some research participants might be lost from the experimental or control group because they drop out of the study, miss pretesting or posttesting, or are absent during some sessions.
attrition (have a large n to counteract) (check for a rival hypothesis if one group seems to have a pattern of attrition)
experimental mortality
the phenomenon of losing research particpants during the course of an experment (also known as attrition)
threat to internal validity
----------------------------------
selection-maturation interaction
This extraneous variable is similar to differential selection, except that maturation is the specific confounding variable.
because of selection the groups start at the same point but mature at a different rate
threat to internal validity
----------------------------------
experimental treatment diffusion
If the treatment condition is perceived as highly desirable relative to the control condition, members of the control group may seek access to the treatment condition.
the treatment “seeps” into the control group (observers to ensure treatment is correct and doesn’t seep)
threat to internal validity
-------------------------------------------
compensatory rivalry by the control group
If this phenomenon occurs, the observed difference - or lack of difference - between the experimental treatment and control groups on the posttest can be attributed to the control group's unusual motivation rather than to treatment effects. (also known as the John Henry effect)
control group will work harder as a result of rivalry (competitive spirit)
compensatory rivalry
involves a situation in which control group participants perform beyond their usual level because they perceive that they are in competition with the experimental group.
threat to internal validity
-----------------------------------------
compensatory equalization of treatments
This extraneous variable can occur if the experimental group receives a treatment that provides goods or services perceived as desirable.
researchers try to offset compensatory rivalry and resentful demoralization and reduce the gap of treatment effectiveness.
threat to internal validity
-----------------------------------------------
resentful demoralization of the control group
A control group can become discouraged if it perceives that the experimental group is receiving a desirable treatment that is being withheld from it.
put off and so they don’t try