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24 Cards in this Set

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random sample
a sample in which all members of the accessible population had an equal chance of being selected
probability sampling
each individual in the population has a known probability of being selected
simple random sample
a sample selected from a population by a process that provides every sample of a a given size an equal probability of being selected
systematic sampling
a group of individuals obtained by taking every "nth" individual from a list containing the defined population
stratified sampling
selection of a sample so that certain subgroups in the population are adequately represented in the sample
proportional stratified sampling
the proportion of each subgroup in the sample is the same as their proportion in the population
nonproportional stratified sampling
an equal n sample from each subgroup in the sample regardless of proportion in the population
cluster sampling
the unit of sampling is a naturally occurring group of individuals
multistage cluster sampling
selecting clusters and then selecting individuals within these clusters
convenience sampling
selection of a sample that suits the purposes of the study and that is convenient; the strategy of selecting cases simply because they are available and easy to study
extreme or deviant case sampling
focuses on cases that are unusual or special
intensity sampling
involves selecting cases that manifest the phenomenon of interest intensely but not extremely
typical case sampling
involves the selection of typical cases to study
maximum variation sampling
selecting cases that illusttrate the range of variation in the phenomena to be studied
stratified purposeful sampiing
includes several cases at defined points of variation with respect to the phonomena being studied
homogeneous sampling
(opposite of maximum variation sampling) to select a sample of similar cases so that the particular group that the sample represents can be studied in depth
critical case sampling
selecting a single case that provides a crucial test of a theory, program, or other phenomenon
snowball or chain sampling
a group of cases that are selected by asking one person to recommend someone suitable as a case of the phenomenon of interest, who then recommends another person who is a suitable case or who knows of potential cases; the process continues until the desired sample size is achieved.
criterion sampling
the selection of cases that satisfy an important criterion
theory-based or operational construct sampling
used when the purpose of the study is to gain understanding of real-world manifestations of theoretical constructs
confirming and disconfirming case sampling
done to validate findings of previous research
purposeful random sampling
selecting a random sample using the methods of quantitiative research (used to establish that the sampling procedure is not biased)
sampling politically important cases
a strategy that might serve a useful purpose for the researcher or funding agency
opportunistic sampling
(Patton) the use of findings from one case to inform the researcher's selection of the next case for study