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83 Cards in this Set

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Formative Assessment
Before/ During instructions

Identify Areas that need work
Summative Assessment
End of Instruction

Level of Accomplishment
Objective Testing
Not open to interpretation

Using both Recall and Recognition

Can include factual info

Can include analysis
distractors
Wrong answers that seem to be correct
Assessment Bias
Aspects of assessment instrument that unfairly penalize a group of students because of their gender/age/SES/Race/Ethnicity
Subjective Assessment
Open to interpretation

Papers or Essays

Difficult to grade
Associationism
Pairing.... Connecting

(Behaviorism) [9-6]
Skinner
Schedules of reinforcement effects the speed of learning

*puzzle box, tap disk to receive food[9-6]
Pavlov
strong and weak centers of excitation in the brain
-timing of US and CS
Order
Discrimination of Cues
cookie kid [9-6]
common concepts to associationism
Antecedents/ Cues
Consequences
Reinforcers
Punishment
Schedules [9-6]
Wattson
The essence of behaviorism
-once habits are learned they are hard to change
-learning is in our muscles
-birds used memorized patterns like maze to find nest, always do same routine at first, same with mouse in long/short maze [9-6]
Thorndike
Pleasurable Consequences
Trail and Error Learning
Progressive nature of learning
law of effect
cat & latch box[9-6]
Hans
Sensitivity Cues
*horse doing math picking up facial Cues [9-6]
Lidell
Behavior Farm [9-6]
static

environment
Knowledge is not _____ we act upon the ____________
Elkinds

operative
Hands on learning

"activley engaged"

elementary
Elkind
Elkinds

Figurative type of learning
copying

"acquiring aspects of reality"

Facts
elkind
Elkinds

Connotative type of learning
Reflective

"meaning and conections"

Why
Elkind
Jerome Bruner

Enactive
Motor activites

*hint
Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner

Iconic
Images

*hint
Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner

symbolic
Reconstruct and language

*hint
Jerome Bruner
Piaget
Development Drives Learning


(see things through level of development)
Discovery learning
Hands on



*constructionists*
Constructionists
Children are not taught..
..rather cognitive growth is facilitated by
discovery learning
readiness to learn
a connection to what they already know
Discovery learning
Introduce cognitive conflict(PIAGET)

Questions and prompts (VYGOTSKY)

*constructionists*
Discovery leraning
environment important


*constructionists*
Readiness to learn
sequencing and pacing (PIAGET)

Scaffolding (VYGOTSKY)

*constructionists*
READINESS TO LEARN
Build from and connect to base knowledge (PIAGET)

ZPD (VYGOTSKY)

*constructionists*
Individual Differences
assess progress


*constructionists*
individual differences
group work *same ages (PIAGET)

group work *mixed ages (VYGOTSKY)

*constructionists*
LEARNING drives development

*cannot separate thinking from environment

*learning through social interaction
(VYGOTSKY)

Socio cultural theory
Information processing
concerned with how people operate on information

detection
transformation
storage
accessing
Input > processing (>/<) output
______ > _______ (>/<) _______

info model
info processing OUTPUT *
Covert (thoughts memory)

Over (SEE)
CASE
Neo-piagetian

WHO
reinterprets piagets stages with an information processing frame work
Neo - piagetian

WHAT
Case

sensorimotor operations
representations are comprised of sensory input

*physical
*predimensional thinking
case
Case

representational operations
internal images (symbols)

conceret images

unidemensional thinking (tadpole man)
case
Case

logical operations
able to act upon mental representation with transformation bidimensional
case
Case

Foraml Operations
Able to perform complex transformation with mental representations, integrated bidimensional thinking
case
Brain development
myelination synaptic growth and pruning
practice with schemes and automatization
frees working memory for combining existing scemes and promoting new ones
Schemes

automatizations

working

comination
Practicing ______ (assimilation) leads to _____ which releases ____ memory for other activities, permitting scheme___ and construction (accomidation)
Formation of central conceptual structures
network of concepts and relations that permit them to think about a wide range of situations in advanced ways
case
Central conceptual structures
with new _______, children move to next stage of development
case
Siegler's theory
model of strategy choices

examples: tic tac toe
math problems
conservation tasks
Siegler's theory
evolutionary theory of cognitive development, which states that variation and selection characterize childrens mental strategies, yielding adaptive problem solveing techniques and an overlapping waves pattern of cognitive development
accuracy and effort

"speed"
Sieglers finding of

________ and __________

leading to greater efficency
Mirogenetic research design
presenting children with many problems over an extended time
conceptual thought
VERBAL THOUGHT(when speech and thought are inter related) MODEL of organizing eniro by abstracting and labeling a quality shared by two or more phenomena
Complexes
objects are united in the childs mind not only by subjective impressions but also by bonds that actually exists among the objects
Halliday's functions of language
Instrumental
regulatory
Heuristic
imaginative
representational
personal
Halliday's functions of language

instrumental
I want


Halliday's functions of language
Halliday's functions of language

regulatory
Go away

(tell others what to do)


Halliday's functions of language
Halliday's functions of language

Heuristic
Whats that?

(Language used to gain info)


Halliday's functions of language
Halliday's functions of language

Imaginative
Used to tell stories


Halliday's functions of language
Halliday's functions of language

Represntational
This is blue

(language used to convey facts)


Halliday's functions of language
Halliday's functions of language

personal
expressing feeling


Halliday's functions of language
Computational level

*Describes steps taken when task is performed

*describes mechanisms by which algorithm is carried out in some physicalk system
Definition:Describes task to be performed

Algorithmic _______ and implementation _______
stimulus
evniro conditions that activate the senses
response
any consequence that strengthens a behavior
consequences
pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behavior and affect the freq of future behaviors
Behavioral learning theory
explanation of learning that emphasizes observable changes in behavior
Pavlov
Thorndike

Skinner
Behavioral learning theorists
classical conditioning
the process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response
law of effect
Stamping in and stamping out

acts followed by (un)favorable effects that make in less/more likely it will be repeated in similar situations
operant conditiong
use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior
STRENGTHENS

Praise and reward
positive reinforcement
STRENGTHENS

take away undesired object/task
Negative reinforcement
DISCOURAGES

add pain or discomfort
Positive punishment
DISCOURAGES

take away pleasure
Negative punishment
GOAL directed
purpose
cognitive
Purposive behavior
Latent learning
form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response
Observational learning
learning by observing and imitation of others
vicarious learning
learning based on observation of the consequences of others behaviors
Behavior (hobbies, friends)
Cognitive process (expectation, memory)
environmental variables(consequence, stimuli)
Triadic reciprocity
assimliation
change something to meet ones schema
accomidation
changing ones schema to meet reality
Seriation
putting things in order
animism
giving inanimate things lifelike characteristics
conservation
same amount, different size
intersubjectivity
a common ground for communication, experts should modify for learner--? create a mutual level of understanding
ZPD
ones potential to acquire a particular skill