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14 Cards in this Set

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What is heterosis
Hybrid vigor, robustness found in offspring with high levels of heterozygosis. Often seen in hybrid seeds.
What are heirloom varieties
Plants that have been allowed to openly pollinate, are usually from landrace, and have strong phenotypic diversity. These plants breed true to type and have a historic association with place and people.
What is the difference between a germplasm bank and a gene bank
A germplasm bank contains all the alleles for a species in the form of organisms. A gene bank contains the genetic material for a species in the form of components of the organism.
What are the tests for seed viability
Germination- seeing if the seed grows
Tetrazolium- dye applied to opened seed, red = yes
Excised embryo- remove embryo, try to grow on media
What are the phases of germination
1. Imbibition of water
2. Activation of hormones & food stores
3. Embryo growth and development
What is fragmentation
Asexual propagation method involving removal of plant material and replant/regrow, when all the plant material is required.
What is layering
Asexual propagation method used for growing roots and/or shoots off of a living plant.
What are cuttings
Asexual propagation method using part of a plant to grow a whole new plant
Preparation and growth of tissue culture
1. harvest explant- small tissue sample, must be disease free*
2. media/conditions- grown on high growth stimulation media with environmental conditions
3. callus formation- auxin & cytokinin
4. grow plantlet- roots then shoots
What are auxins
Plant hormones created in the apical meristem, expressed higher in young plants. Generally function in cell elongation- apical dominance effect. Promote root initiation when applied to cuttings and callus formation in grafting media.
What are gibberellins
Plant hormones that function in regulation of stem growth, flower & fruit maturation, sex differentiation, and seed germination and utilization of food stores.
What are cytokinins
Plant hormones that function in cell division and shoot formation.
What is ethylene
Plant hormone produced at higher rates in rapidly growing and dividing cells. Has a limited water solubility, rapidly and easily diffuses between cells and out of the plant. Functions in flower sex expression, fruit ripening, preventing excessive growth, and release of fruit from the plant.
What is abscisic acid
Plant hormone usually produced in the leaves. Functions in regulating parts of seed development (nutrient partitioning into seed and preventing premature germination), seed and bud dormancy, and initiation of plant stress response.