Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Within the ________, scientists might study things like the layers of the Earth.
When scientists are studying global weather systems, they are studying the interactions between the _______ and the __________. (sphere)
Atmosphere, Hydrosphere
The final system is the _______, and it involves the study of all of the life on Earth.
5 areas of Earth Science: The first area is outside of Earth's atmosphere and includes things like stars and other planets.
5 areas of Earth Science:
This area includes the study of weather and the atmosphere.
5 areas of Earth Science: The study of the materials that make up the Earth is called _______. It also studies the ancient environments and life forms of Earth.
5 areas of Earth Science: The study of Earth's oceans and the life within them.
The study of the interactions of organisms and their surroundings.
Environmental Science
The series of procedures that helps scientists conduct experiments is...
scientific method
A testable explanation of a situation that can be supported or disproved.
The factor in an experiment that can be adjusted by the experimenter.
Independent variable
This factor is affected by the changes that the experimenter made.
Dependent variable
Used to show the results of an experiment are a result of the tested conclusion.
An imaginary line that circles the globe midway between the poles.
The imaginary line that crosses through Greenwich, England, used for longitude.
Prime Meridian
imaginary lines that denote distance from the equator.
latitude lines
imaginary lines that denote distance from east or west of the prime meridian
longitudinal lines or meridians.
The science of mapmaking
This explains what the symbols on the map represent...
This type of map shows the different rock types in an area
true or false
the space between lines on a contour map is called the contour line?
true or false
the global postioning satellite system can accurately identify your elevation with 2 satellites
False, they need 3
true or false, geological maps help scientists study patterns in subsurface geologic formations
The end of which era is marked by the largest extinction event in Earth's history? cenozoic, mesozoic, or paleozoic?
how old is the mammoth's tusk if 25% of the original c-14 remains in the sample? The half-life of c-14 is 5,730 years.
11,460 years
which is the smallest division of geologic time?
which geologic principle is used when a geologist observes an outcrop of rocks and determines that the bottom layer is the oldest?
uranium-238 breaks down into thorium-234, which is thorium in relation to uranium?
the record of earth's history to the present
geologic time scale
a gap in the rock record caused by erosion
the emission of radioactive isotopes AND THE resultant change over time.
radioactive decay
The largest division of time in the geologic time scale?
the matching of unique outcrops among regions...
(choices: radioactive decay, correlation, or unconformity?)
Which rock is the youngest?
the one that is on the very top.
Which rock is the oldest?
The one on the bottom.
what is a disconformity?
A type of unconformity in which the rock layers are parallel.
what is an angular unconformity?
Angular unconformity is an unconformity where horizontally parallel strata of sedimentary rock are deposited on tilted and eroded layers, producing an angular discordance with the overlying horizontal layers.
Which sedimentary rock is used to make cement for the construction industry?
what is the relative age of an intrusion, name the principles you applied.
It is younger than what it cuts across. (principle of cross-cutting) It is older than what is above it. (superposition)
the phanerozoic eon includes the paleozoic, mesozoic, and ___________ era?
an example of a fossil with original preservation includes a(n)
a- insect in amber
b- mold of a shell
c- dinosaur footprint
a- insect in amber
an example of a trace fossil includes
a- cast of a clam
b- worm trail
c- insect in amber
b- worm trail.
c-14 has a half life of 5,730 years. How many half-lives have passed after 11,560 years?
What percentage of carbon-14 remains after 2 half-lives?
An _____ is a mineral that contains a useful substance that can be mined for a profit.
a ________ is a valuable mineral prized for its rarity and beauty.
The way a mineral reflects light from its surface is called _________.
A minerals' _______ is the color of a mineral when it is broken up and powdered.
If a mineral splits easily and evenly along one or more planes, it has the property of _______.
Identification tests of minerals are based on their
a-scientific names
b- physical and chemical properties
c- color
B- physical and chemical properties
The ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at 4 degrees celcius is its
a-specific gravity
specific gravity, A
A mineral's hardness with respect to other minerals can be determined by ....
The Mohs Scale of Hardness
Lodestone can pick up iron filings. What special property does lodestone have?
c-double refraction
a- magnetism
Hardness is the measure of how easily a mineral can be
Describe how minerals form with an emphasis on the source and crystal size.
They can form from evaporation of a super-saturated solution. Also, they can form from cooling magma. If it cools quickly, the crystals are smaller and vice versa.
Name the two most common elements in Earth's crust AND what mineral group that those 2 form.
Silicon and oxygen, they form silicates.
List two reasons petroleum is not a mineral.
1. It is not a solid and is organic
Predict the success of a lab test in which students plan to compare the streak of fluorite, quartz, and feldspar.
Will it work?
Why or Why Not?
No, it will not work because those minerals are not metallic. The streak is white. It will not show up on a white streak plate.
Gases escape from this as it flows out onto Earth's surface.
This diagram describes the order in which minerals crystallize.
Bowen's reaction series
This forms deep beneath Earth's crust.
Igneous texture with large and fine grain minerals.
Igneous rocks that cool quickly.
Which is the 1st mineral to form in cooling magma?
A- quartz
B- mica
C- olivine
olivine C
Which type of magma has the most silica?
a, Basaltic, b,rhyolitic, or c, andesitic?
b, rhyolitic.
Which does not affect the formation of magma?
B- temperature
a- volume
which type of ultrabasic rock ssome times contains diamond?
What term describes igneous rock that crystallizes inside Earth?
Rock that forms when molten material cools and crystallizes is called _____ rock.
Classification of igneous rock is based on _______ composition, crystal size, and _______
mineral, texture
The rate of cooling determines ______ size
Ores often occur in ______ and diamonds often occur in ________.
pegmatites, kimberlites
_______ is classified as basaltic, _______, or rhyolitic based on its silica content.
Magma, andesitic
Magma consists of molten ____, dissolved _______, and mineral crystals.
rock, gases
Compare gabbro and basalt.
Gabbro and basalt have low silica content. They are both mafic rock.
Contrast gabbro and basalt.
Gabbro is intrusive, basalt is extrusive. Therefore, gabbro is coarse-grained and basalt is fine-grained.
Determine whether quartz or plagioclase feldspar is more likely to form a well-shaped crystal in igneous rock, explain.
Plagioclase feldspar is more likely to, because it will crystallize first. Then, the quartz will fill in the cracks that the feldspar left over. Quartz can't form well-shaped crystals that way.
Explain why extrusive rocks can never have a coarse-grained texture.
Extrusive rocks cool quickly. There is not enough time for large crystals to form. Extrusive rocks are fine-grained.
The outermost electrons of an atom are...
Valence electrons
The center of an atom is...
the nucleus
The smallest particle of matter that retains its characteristics is an ..
A tiny particle with a negative electrical charge is an ..
The average of the mass numbers of an element's isotopes is..
the atomic mass
The combined number of protons and neutrons is the what?
mass number
what represents the area in an atom where an electron is most likey to be found.

an energy level or an isotope
energy level
what kind of bond is the attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that holds the atoms together.
covalent bond.
an atom that gains or loses an electron is a charged particle called a(n) what?
what is the substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances?
an element
the basic building blocks of matter are
the nucleus of an atom is made up of
protons and neutrons
many elements are mixtures of
solids, isotopes, or molecules?
chemical behavior is determined by the number of electrons located in the
innermost, second, or outermost energy level?
solutions containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in water are
bases, mixtures, or acids?
the isotopes of neon-20 and neon-22 have the same chemical properties. explain why.
they have the same number of protons and electrons. their number of neutrons differ.
what do you call a hot, highly ionized, electrically conducting "gas"?
the change from a gas to a liquid?
a homogeneous mixture is aka a
the attractive forces between two ions of opposite charge is
ionic bond
the spontaneous process through which unstable nuclei emit radiation is...
radioactive decay
a combination of two or more components that retain their identity is
a mixture
the attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that hold the atoms together
covalent bond
a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined
a solution containing a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in water.
bond in which valence electrons are shared by all atoms
metallic bond
composed of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
the change of one or more substances into other substances
chemical reaction
the forces that hold together the elements in a compound
chemical bonds
t or f
the precambrian is the oldest part of the geologic time scale?
t or f
the precambrian lasted for about 4 billion years
t or f
the first organisms to live on earth were dinosaurs?
t or f
radiometric dating of zircon grains in sedimentary rock in australia indicate earth is 3.1 billion years old.
t or f
the oldest moon rocks collected are about 3.6 billion years old?
when earth formed, the dense element _____ was concentrated in Earth's core.
The deepest and most stable part of the continent is called the _____.
earth's ------ formed as a result of the uppermost mantle cooling
the less-dense, continental crust is composed mostly of ________.
the process by which a planet becomes zoned is called _______.
what was the name of the first supercontinent, and what smaller land masses did it form?
Rodinia was the first supercontinent; it was formed from Laurentia and Amazonia.
what is an asteroid?
A space rock between Mars and Jupiter
What is a meteoroid?
Part of an asteroid that has fallen onto Earth.
What 3 things combined to make youndg Earth so extremely hot?
1- Radioactive isotopes, earth's contraction, and asteroid and meteorite bombardment.
What process is probably the reason for the formation of Earth's atmosphere?
What are the two major gases that come from volcanic outgassing?
carbon dioxide and water vapor
comp and contr prokaryotes and eukaryotes
prokaryotes do not contain a nucleus, eukaryotes do. They both contain genetic materials.
What land feature is associated with orogenies?
Evaluate how red beds serve as evidence that there was oxygen gas in the atmosphere during the mid-Proterozoic?
The oxygen in the atmosphere made them red in color
What are the large mats of cyanobacteria called?
tiny, thread-like photosynthetic organisms
stable mineral that commonly occurs in granite
hot water vent at volcanic seafloor rift.
hydrothermal vents
fossils of soft-bodied Proterozoic organism
ediacaran biota
building blocks of proteins
amino acids
Explain what transgressions and regressions indicate.
A change in sea level. Transgression- water goes in shore. Regession- water recedes.
What orogeny occurred during the Paleozoic in Laurentia?
Alleghanian Orogeny
When did reptiles become the dominant terrestrial animals?
Assess the extent of glaciation during the Cenozoic.
Covered 1/3 of all landmasses.
A stacked sequence of _____-_______-________ indicates a regression.
sandstone, shale, limestone
sediments that are deposited adjacent to each other also end up in _______ __________ when sea levels change.
vertical succession.
When did the largest mass extinction occur?
The end of the paleozoic Era.
Ancient geographic setting of an area
continental edge with no tectonic activity
passive margin
mountain-building event names for the mountains of Eastern New York.
Taconic Orogeny
Sudden appearance of diverse organisms...
cambrian explosion
animal that walks on 2 legs
mountain range in colorado formed by inland uplift.
Ancestral Rockies.
T or F, During the Triassic, Pangaea and two oceans defined Earth's paleogeography
t or f
The first birds, mammals and flowering plants appeared during the Cenozoic
t or f
As the climate cooled during the Cenozoic, forests gave way for grasslands to develop.
t or f
Early humans appeared about 6 million years ago, modern humans about 200,000 years ago.
t or f
There are marine fossils at the top of Mt. Everestbecause of a continental collision?