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66 Cards in this Set

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A group of disciplines that have a common approach to improving our understanding of how nature works.
Science
Name the order of the scientific method
Observe
Hypothesize
Predict
Test
Modify
Theorize
Make observations on some aspect of the universe
Observe
Make an "educated guess" to explain the observations
Hypothesize
Use the hypothesis to predict other aspects of the nature of the universe.
Predict
Test the predictions by experiments and/or further observations.
Test
If the predictions are not supported, use the experimental results and/or new observations to modify the hypothesis and then repeat steps 3 and 4.
Modify
When all the predictions are supported by the experiments and/or new observations the hypothesis becomes a theory. A theory is a conceptual framework that explains exisiting observations and predicts new ones.
Theorize
Statistical techniques that provide a means of testing predictions.
Quantitive methods
______ _______ are not accepted based on the presitge, convincing powers or charisma of the proponent, but on the results obtained through observations and/or experiments which are reproducible.
Scientific findings
A statistical procedure to test whether two samples have a statisticly similar or dissimilar average value.
Mann-Whitney U test
HO
There is no significant difference in the average temperatures of the two samples. Null Hypothesis.
Name the three natural refrence points
The north and south poles,
Where the axis of rotation intersects the surface,
and the Equator
An imaginary circle around the Earth lying midway between the poles.
Equator
North-south lines
Meridians (longitude)
East-West lines
Parallels (latitude)
Coordinates on a map that represent the intersection of a line of latitude and a line of longitude and indicates the ________ _______.
absolute location
The angular distance of a point measured either north or south from the equator
Latitude
Parallels of latitude are constructed by means of _______ _________ ______ ___ ______ ___ ____ _______.
angular measurement from the center of the Earth.
Lines that run North and South from pole to pole, and measure distance in degrees to the East and West of the Prime Meridian.
Longitude
Passes through Greenwich,England, and is designated 0 degrees longitude.
Prime Meridian
The shape of the land
topography
usually average sea level
the datum
The mean (average) sea level as of 1929
National Geodetic Vertical datum of 1929
Which direction does a contour line point when crossing a stream?
Upstream (uphill)
The change in elevation between two adjacent contour lines
contour interval
The greater the contour interval, the more ______ the terrain
rugged
The steeper the slope, the _______ _______ the contour lines. The flatter the land, the ________ ________ the lines are.
closer together/ father apart
Indicates a known elevation point
benck mark, BM682x/ spot height, 5381x
Lines on a topographic map that are shown in brown, and show the height of the land
contour line
Perpetually migrates over the Earth's surface between 23.5 N and 23.5 S.
Vertical sun ray
Regardless of where the Earth is in its orbit, the position of the axis is always parallel to future and past positions.
parallelism of axis
23.5 degrees from a line perpendicular to the plane of orbit.
tilt of the axis
The curious figure 8-shaped object that normally appears on globes just west of South America in the Pacific ocean.
analemma
Why does the vertical sun ray migrate over the Earth's surface?
- The tilt of the axis
- The revolution of the Earth
- The parallelism of the axis during rotation
Sunlight or radiant energy from the sun.
Insolation
The reflectivity of a material.
Albedo
Solar energy that is absorbed. Will heat up materials.
Absorption
A measure of the intensity of solar radiation.
Langley
A rate of energy production equal to 0.239 cal/sec.
Watt
Rate of change of some variable through space or time.
Gradient
Lines (like contours) that connect points having the same temperature
Isotherm
Name 2 atmospheric and locational factors that might affect the amount of solar radiation reaching a service weather station.
- Cloud coverage
- Greenhouse gases
System of symoblic notation for summarizing weather information from a particular place.
Station model
An instrument for measuring temperature.
Thermometer
An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure
Barometer
An instrument for measuring wind speed.
Anemometer
An instrument for measuring atmospheric humidity
Psychrometer
Lines connecting points of equal barometric pressure on a weather map.
Isobar
Lines connecting points of equal temperature on a weather map
Isotherm
Temperature at whcih the air is saturated with moisture.
Dew point temperature
A measure of speed.
Knot
Name the three important uses of the weather model
- Demonstrates basic weather frontal structures and airmasses.
- Relates precipitation, wind direction, cloud types, temperatures, and pressures to warm and cold fronts.
- Provides a means of predicting weather conditions.
The result of weather elements interacting over a long time.
Climate
Based on mean annual and monthly temperatures and precipitation.
Koppen Classification
Avg. Temp is over 64.4/moist/monsoon/winterdry season
Tropical Climates
Potential evaporation is greater than precipitation/ desert/steppe/hot/cold
Dry Climates
Avg. temp of coldest month:32-64.4/ Avg. temp of warmest months, over 50/ summer dry/winter dry/moist/hot summers/warm summers/cool summers
Mesothermal climates
Avg. temp for coldest month: less than 32. Warmest: greater than 50./very cold winters
Microthermal climates
No month w/avg temp above 50/tundra/frost
Polar climates
Man-made gases that are a possible cause for global warming
greenhouse gases
A graph with both a bar and line graph
climograph
Avg. temp for coldest month: less than 32. Warmest: greater than 50./very cold winters
Microthermal climates
No month w/avg temp above 50/tundra/frost
Polar climates
Man-made gases that are a possible cause for global warming
greenhouse gases
A graph with both a bar and line graph
climograph