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### 66 Cards in this Set

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 A group of disciplines that have a common approach to improving our understanding of how nature works. Science Name the order of the scientific method Observe Hypothesize Predict Test Modify Theorize Make observations on some aspect of the universe Observe Make an "educated guess" to explain the observations Hypothesize Use the hypothesis to predict other aspects of the nature of the universe. Predict Test the predictions by experiments and/or further observations. Test If the predictions are not supported, use the experimental results and/or new observations to modify the hypothesis and then repeat steps 3 and 4. Modify When all the predictions are supported by the experiments and/or new observations the hypothesis becomes a theory. A theory is a conceptual framework that explains exisiting observations and predicts new ones. Theorize Statistical techniques that provide a means of testing predictions. Quantitive methods ______ _______ are not accepted based on the presitge, convincing powers or charisma of the proponent, but on the results obtained through observations and/or experiments which are reproducible. Scientific findings A statistical procedure to test whether two samples have a statisticly similar or dissimilar average value. Mann-Whitney U test HO There is no significant difference in the average temperatures of the two samples. Null Hypothesis. Name the three natural refrence points The north and south poles, Where the axis of rotation intersects the surface, and the Equator An imaginary circle around the Earth lying midway between the poles. Equator North-south lines Meridians (longitude) East-West lines Parallels (latitude) Coordinates on a map that represent the intersection of a line of latitude and a line of longitude and indicates the ________ _______. absolute location The angular distance of a point measured either north or south from the equator Latitude Parallels of latitude are constructed by means of _______ _________ ______ ___ ______ ___ ____ _______. angular measurement from the center of the Earth. Lines that run North and South from pole to pole, and measure distance in degrees to the East and West of the Prime Meridian. Longitude Passes through Greenwich,England, and is designated 0 degrees longitude. Prime Meridian The shape of the land topography usually average sea level the datum The mean (average) sea level as of 1929 National Geodetic Vertical datum of 1929 Which direction does a contour line point when crossing a stream? Upstream (uphill) The change in elevation between two adjacent contour lines contour interval The greater the contour interval, the more ______ the terrain rugged The steeper the slope, the _______ _______ the contour lines. The flatter the land, the ________ ________ the lines are. closer together/ father apart Indicates a known elevation point benck mark, BM682x/ spot height, 5381x Lines on a topographic map that are shown in brown, and show the height of the land contour line Perpetually migrates over the Earth's surface between 23.5 N and 23.5 S. Vertical sun ray Regardless of where the Earth is in its orbit, the position of the axis is always parallel to future and past positions. parallelism of axis 23.5 degrees from a line perpendicular to the plane of orbit. tilt of the axis The curious figure 8-shaped object that normally appears on globes just west of South America in the Pacific ocean. analemma Why does the vertical sun ray migrate over the Earth's surface? - The tilt of the axis - The revolution of the Earth - The parallelism of the axis during rotation Sunlight or radiant energy from the sun. Insolation The reflectivity of a material. Albedo Solar energy that is absorbed. Will heat up materials. Absorption A measure of the intensity of solar radiation. Langley A rate of energy production equal to 0.239 cal/sec. Watt Rate of change of some variable through space or time. Gradient Lines (like contours) that connect points having the same temperature Isotherm Name 2 atmospheric and locational factors that might affect the amount of solar radiation reaching a service weather station. - Cloud coverage - Greenhouse gases System of symoblic notation for summarizing weather information from a particular place. Station model An instrument for measuring temperature. Thermometer An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure Barometer An instrument for measuring wind speed. Anemometer An instrument for measuring atmospheric humidity Psychrometer Lines connecting points of equal barometric pressure on a weather map. Isobar Lines connecting points of equal temperature on a weather map Isotherm Temperature at whcih the air is saturated with moisture. Dew point temperature A measure of speed. Knot Name the three important uses of the weather model - Demonstrates basic weather frontal structures and airmasses. - Relates precipitation, wind direction, cloud types, temperatures, and pressures to warm and cold fronts. - Provides a means of predicting weather conditions. The result of weather elements interacting over a long time. Climate Based on mean annual and monthly temperatures and precipitation. Koppen Classification Avg. Temp is over 64.4/moist/monsoon/winterdry season Tropical Climates Potential evaporation is greater than precipitation/ desert/steppe/hot/cold Dry Climates Avg. temp of coldest month:32-64.4/ Avg. temp of warmest months, over 50/ summer dry/winter dry/moist/hot summers/warm summers/cool summers Mesothermal climates Avg. temp for coldest month: less than 32. Warmest: greater than 50./very cold winters Microthermal climates No month w/avg temp above 50/tundra/frost Polar climates Man-made gases that are a possible cause for global warming greenhouse gases A graph with both a bar and line graph climograph Avg. temp for coldest month: less than 32. Warmest: greater than 50./very cold winters Microthermal climates No month w/avg temp above 50/tundra/frost Polar climates Man-made gases that are a possible cause for global warming greenhouse gases A graph with both a bar and line graph climograph