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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The fundamental principle of Geology
The concept that the oldest rock layers are at the bottom of a sequence with younger rock layers deposited on top of them
Any event that cuts across an existing rock unit is younger than that unit.
cross cutting relationships
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Proposed by the Danish geological pioneer Nicholas Steno. This principle states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally
principal of horizontality
erosional surfaces between older crystalline rocks and younger sedimentary rocks.
erosional surfaces that separate older tilted or folded beds the younger flat lying beds.
angular unconformities
erosional surfaces between parallel sedimentary beds.
Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order,
therefore any geologic time interval can be recognized by its fossil content
principle of fauna succession
Cell material is removed and replaced with mineral matter

Shell or other structure is buried and then
dissolved by underground water
Shape is preserved in the surrounding
Hollow space of a mold is
filled with mineral matter
Organic matter becomes a thin
residue of carbon. This is
a ‘compression’of the original
Replica of the fossil's
surface preserved in
fine-grained sediment
Fossils existed for a short range of geologic time
index fossils
4500 million or 4.6 billion years
age of earth
This eon from first rocks until abundant fossil organisms
precambrian eon
Paleozoic (old life, trilobites, fishes),
Mesozoic Era (middle life, age of dinosaurs), Cenozoic (recent life, age of
Phanerozoic Eon divided up into three eras
eras are divided into ______
Actual age dates determined by crosscutting relationships with igneous rocks
that can be dated radiometrically. T or F?
smallest particle that retains properties of element
have the same number of
protons, but different numbers of neutrons.
Proton + electron = neutron

T or F
___________of unstable isotopes gives off several forms of radiation
Radioactive Decay
release of two protons and two neutrons.
alpha decay
release of electron
beta decay
are photons released from nucleus to reach ‘rest’ state.
gamma rays
columns are
groups of elements with similar physical properties, arranged by the number of
valence electrons. T or F
valence of alkali metals
valence of alkaline earth metals
valence of haolgens
characteristics of acids and bases
chemical opposites
neutralize one another
combine in solution to yield water and "salt"
alkali metals have ___ charge, lose______
+1, lose
Alkaline earth metals have____charge, lose 2 ______
+2, electrons
halogens have ____ charge, and gain ____
-1, gain
what does H+ signify?
an acid
what does OH- signify
a base
acids donate ____ to base
pH 7 is _____
pH literally stands for
power hydrogeni
ionic compounds join by donation/reciept of _________
pH of bases is between ____ and ____
7, 14
pH of acids is between ____ and ____
7, 0
cation is _____ charged
anion is _____ charged
natural gas is mostly________
combustion of hydrocarbon in oxygen creates ______
disadvantages of solar energy?
inefficient (10%)
Not much solar gain in some areas
Cost of the balance of the systems
• Photons from Sun excite electrons in atoms
• Induces current flow
• Produces direct current electricity (DC)
• About 100 watts/m2
disadvantages of biomass fuel (plant sources, bio fuel)
low % efficiency..3%

lack of growable land where power is needed
Wind power: make electricity. U. S. locations, potential utilization amount.
Utilization amount in other areas
California, intermountain west, and Minnesota at present

potential utilization amount 10% gain

utilization in Denmark 20%, germany 7%
what is biomass...where is it from and what does it produce?
• Direct burning of plant material
• Oil harvested from seeds
• Plant material converted to
–Alcohol: methanol and ethanol
–Converted to methane
disadvantages of water power
Need to dam rivers where precipitation is reliable
Grand Coulee Dam
North America’s largest concrete
• Located on the Columbia River in
Central Washington
*3rd largest producer of
electricity in the world
disadvantages of tide power
• Prevents migration of anadromousfish
• Inhibits navigation
• Damages natural and scenic coastlines
geothermal energy...where?
• California about 10%
–‘The Geysers’ geothermal field• Hawaii’s Big Island 25%
• The Philippines 27%
geothermal energy disadvantages?
–Water is corrosive
–Steam is depleted from hot reservoirs
• More energy than any other fuel
–2 H2+ O2 2 H2O + 572 kJ heat energy• WATER is the reaction product—clean!
• Can be distributed in presently existing pipelines
• But isn’t hydrogen DANGEROUS??
ice that burns
methan hydrate
oil shale
four corners
• Lack of order of systems
• Nature tends toward disorder—greater entropy
• Takes energy to overcome entropy
–Oil spill on Columbia River
–CFC released into atmosphere
types of traps for petroleum
• Structural
• Stratigraphic
* unconformity trap
major oil fields in north america
titusville, pa
texas oil
signal hill
north sea