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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a mineral?
A natural, inorganic crystalline solid
What does inorganic mean?
Inorganic is a substance not made up of living things or the remains of living things
How do you determine if a substance is a mineral or nonmineral?
1) Is the substance inorganic?
2) Does it occur naturally?
3) Is the substance a solid in
crystalline form?
4) Does the substance have a definite
chemical composition?
What are common minerals called?
Rock-forming minerals because they form the rocks of the earth's crust
How many common minerals are there?
There are 20 common minerals, but 10 of these make up 90% of the earth's crust
Minerals can be classified into two groups. What are these groups?
silicate minerals
nonsilicate minerals
How many of the ten most common minerals can you name?
quartz calcite
orthoclase dolomite
plagioclase halite
muscovite gypsum
biotite ferromagnesium
What are the characteristics of silicate minerals?
Contain atoms of silicon (Si)
Contain atoms of oxygen (O)
Most contain one or more different atoms
Feldspars are the most common silicate mineral.
What causes different forms of feldspar minerals?
The type of metal that combines with the silicon and oxygen
What are some types of feldspar minerals?
Othoclase- Si + O + Potassium (K)

Plagioclase- Si + O + Sodium (Na)
and/or calcium (Ca)
What is quartz?
Quartz is a silicate mineral made up only of silicon and oxygen atoms.
What are ferromagnesian minerals?
Silicate minerals that are rich in iron and magnesium.
Hornblende olivine
muscovite biotite
How much of the earth's crust do silicate minerals make up?
Silicate minerals make up 96% of the earth's crust.
How much of the earth's crust is feldspar and quartz?
50% of the earth's crust is feldspar and quartz
What are nonsilicate minerals?
Minerals that do not contain silicon
What percent of the earth's crust is made up of nonsilicate minerals?
4% of the earth's crust are nonsilicate minerals
What are the six groups that nonsilicate minerals are divided into?
Carbonates Halides

Native elements Oxides

Sulfates Sulfides
All minerals on earth have the same structure. What is it called?
Minerals have have a crystalline structure
What is a crystal?
A crystal is a natural solid with a definite shape.
Why aren't there many large mineral crystals?
Because the conditions under which minerals are produced does not allow for large single crytals to grow.
Minerals most commonly consist of what?
They consist of masses of small crystals (most are microscopic)
How do scientists study the structures of crystals?
By using x-ray images that show the geometric arrangement of the atoms or ions of the crystal
All crystalline structures of silicate minerals have the same.......?
Building blocks of four (4) oxygen atoms arranged in a pyramid with one (1) silicon atom in the center.
Four oxygen atoms in a pyramid shape with a silicon atom in the center in called a ..............?
A silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (four-sided)
How do tetrahedron crystals form?
They form by the bonding of the atoms either with the oxygen or silicon atoms or with other tetrahedrons near them.
Silicon-oxygen tetrahedra joined to atoms of elements other than silicon and oxygen are called
Ionic silicate materials
Ex: Olivine is a ferromagnesium mineral made when oxygen atoms of a tetrahedra bond with Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe) atoms
What is a single chain silicate?
When tetrahedron bonds to two other tetrahedra by shared oxygen atoms.
What is a double chain silicate?
Two chains of tetrahedra bond to each other
What is pyroxene?
Minerals made of a single-chain silicate
What is amphiboles?
Double-chain silicates
What is mica?
tetrahedra sheets are tetrahedra whose oxygen atoms have bonded with aluminum (Al) and potassium (K) atoms. Separate easily
What is a tetrahedral sheet?
Tetrahedra shares 3 oxygen atoms with other tetrahedra and one oxygen atom with potassium (K) or aluminum (Al).
What is a network silicate?
Network silicate, each tetrahedron is bonded to 4 other tetrahedra. Some contain only silicate-oxygen tetrahedra
What is quartz?
Quartz is a network silicate that is very hard (atoms bonded tightly)
What is feldspar?
Feldspar is a network silicate, with oxygen bonding to aluminum or other metals rather than silicate. Feldspar is not as strong as quartz