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59 Cards in this Set

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4 causes of deserts
Geographical Isolation, Rain Shadow Deserts, Cold ocean currents, STH 30 degrees N and S
the area has no water, so therefore it is a desert.
Geographical Isolation
orographic lifting of air masses.
Rain Shadow Deserts
costal deserts, coldwater offshore chills the air/takes away
Cold ocean currents
biggest desert region
STH 30 degrees N and S
In regions where rivers do not flow into the ocean, the outflow is through evaporation or subsurface gravitational flow.
Internal drainage
the fourth longest river in Africa, Namibia and Botswana are in a fight over it due to a severe drought, and the river being the main source of water for them.
Okavango
Is shrinking due to high use of water for crops, and is now poisonous due to the fertilizers from farmers that are in it.
Dead Sea
The diversion of its water for irrigation purposes has significantly dropped its water level.
Aral sea
It the lowest point in the US, is a good example of a basin and range configurations.
Death Valley
Dry stream bed on landscape, little surface vegetation, prone to flash flooding, 98% of year is dry, fills up when it rains only for a couple of days a year.
Arroyos
Plants that live in the desert area. Don’t need much water, able to internally conserve it with their leaf shape, length and size.
Xerophytes
most animals in the area are nocturnal
Wildlife
flat sided rocks that are made flat on the windward side due to the wind abrasion.
Ventifacts
very shiny surface of the rock.
Varnish
wind is able to pick up and remove material from the landscape.
Deflation
can cut through glass, will remove paint, wind
Abrasion
gravely, crusty layer that packs down
Pavement
Deflation hollows can be 25-30 ft across, 5 ft deep. Wind leaves a scooped out depression of the landscape.
Blowouts
slipface in the middle of dune
Barchan
made of silt, moves across landscape like a curtain.
Dust storms
wind changes direction periodically.
Star
long, linear, run parallel w/wind.
Longitudinal
waves on the surface, crest is a right angle, transverse to angle of wind. Can be 1000 feet high!
Transverse
base of ridge; gravel and sand structure that piles up at the base pf the ridge, water carries sediments to ridge and they form a wedge, deposited by runoff water.
Alluvial fans
alluvial fans merge to form this isolated peak.
Bajada
floor of basin, sometimes filled w/water and becomes playa lake-water is toxic b/c of mineral content
Playa
“island mountain”, when ridges break down to form individual peaks.
Inselberg
bound by cliffs around the edges, have 200ft of local relief, always has a flat top feature, covers a large span mesa – flat top feature, covers a large span mesa.
Plateau
last thing standing; natural arch structures, very rare (pinnacle)
Hoodoo
flat-top hill
Butte
flat-top mountain, form along edge of basin, same as plateau, but smaller.
Mesa
when the wave crashes down, breaks surface tension, breaker/surf zone, sends a swash.
Breaker waves
area offshore where breaker waves are forming.
Surf
landward rush of water, goes up slope of beach until it releases all energy
Swash
the return flow of the swash
Backwash
Retrogression takes place and land is eaten back by wave action.
Emergent coast
progradiation – deposits sand and other materials- builds on the land
Submergent coast
backshore and foreshore area
Beach
sediment deposited by the sloshing of the waves/ridge-like structures divide beaches backshore and foreshore.
Berms
the part of the beach that is exposed by low tides and submerged by high tides.
Foreshore
narrow sandbar caused by littoral drift in open water; they vary by size
Sandspit
small sand bars that link islands together.
Tombolos
Sandpit attaches to bay – then bay is called a Laguna.
Baymouth bar
biggest sandbar deposited by littoral drift. Not a stable environment.
Barrier island
large wall like structures on either side of a channel, keeps sand out of the channel.
Jetties
Wall-like structure built at a right angle – traps sand and can add to your property.
Groin
dissipates wave action, built right off the coast
Breakwaters
walls built onto backside of the beach to hold off storm waves.
Sea wall
1 high tide and 1 low tide
Diurnal
2 highs and 2 lows, same height
Semidiurnal
2 highs and 2 lows; higher caused by gravity is much higher than tide caused by centripetal force.
Mixed
opposite of spring, lower than normal tides
Neap
higher than normal tides
Spring
reefs on a laguna
Barrier reef
grow attached to a land mass.
Fringing reef
A ring shaped group of coral islands that are surrounded by deep ocean water and that enclose a shallow lagoon.
Atolls
a process by which sediments move along a beach shore. The process arises when waves approach the shore obliquely.
Littoral drift
The movement of sediment along a coastline caused by waves striking the coast at an oblique angle. The waves wash sediment particles up the beach at an oblique angle and the swash back to the sea carries the particles down the gradient of the beach. This produces a zig-zag path of particle movement along the beach.
Long shore drift