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56 Cards in this Set

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Benzodiazepines
(sedative-hypnotic)
alprazolam (Xanax)
clonazepam (Klonopin)
diazepam (Valium)
temazepam (Restoril)
midazolam (Versed)

Action: Binds to benzo receptors and enhances the effects of GABA. They act at the limbic, thalamic, and hypothalamic regions of the CNS and produce any level of CNS depression (including sedation, skeletal muscle relaxation, and anticonvulsant activity.
ACE inhibitor
captopril (Capoten)
enalapril (Vasotec)
lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
ramipril (Altace)

Action: Block the enzyme responsible for the production of angiotensin II, resulting in decreased BP.
Antiarrhythmic
adenosine (Adenocard)

Action: Slows the conduction of electrical impulses at the AV node.
Anti-arrhythmic
Class I
Class 1: Na channel blockers
1A:
procainamide (Pronestyl)
1B:
lidocaine (Xylocaine)

Action:
1A: block fast sodium channels and depress depolarization
1B: shorten the action potential duration
Anti-arrhythmic
Class II
Class II:Beta Blockers
atenolol (Tenormin)
esmolol (Brevibloc)
metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol)
propranolol (Inderal)

Action: Inhibits the strength of the hearts contraction, as well as heart rate, resulting in a decrease in cardiac O2 consumption.
Anti-arrhythmic
Class III
Class III: K+ channel blockers
amiodarone (Cordarone)

Action: acts directly on the myocardium to delay repolarization and increase the duration of the action potential.
Anti-arrhythmic
Class IV
Class IV: Ca+ Channel Blockers
diltiazem (Cardizem)
verapamil (Isoptin)

Action: Blocks calcium from moving into the heart muscle cell, which prolongs the conduction of electrical impulses through the AV node. Also dilates arteries.
Bronchodilator
Aminophylline

Action: relaxes smooth muscle of the bronchial airways and pulmonary blood vessels. May also have antiinflammatory properties.
Bronchodilator: Beta agonist
albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin)

Action: Binds and stimulates Beta 2 receptors, resulting in relaxation of the bronchial smooth muscle.
Bronchodilator: anticholinergic
ipratropium bromide (Atrovent)

Action: antagonizes the acetylcholine receptor on bronchial smooth muscle, producing bronchodilation.
Bronchodilator: adrenergic agent
racemic epinephrine/ racepinephrine (microNephrin)

Action: Stimulates both alpha and beta receptors, causing vasoconstriction, reduced mucosal edema, and bronchodilation.
Bronchodilator: combination
albuterol/ipratropium (Combivent)

Action:Binds and stimulated Beta 2 receptors, resulting in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, and antagonizes the acetylcholine receptor, producing bronchodilation.
Anticonvulsant
carbamazepine (Tegretol)
felbamate (Felbatol)
fosphenytoin (Cerebyx)
gabapentin (Neurotin)
lamotrigine (Lamictal)
phenobarbital (Luminal)
phenytoin (Dilantin)
valproic acid (Depakote)

Action: Decreases the spread of seizures. Some also alter movement of sodium and calcium into nervous and prevent the spread of seizure activity.
antidote, absorbent
Activated Charcoal

Action: When certain chemicals and toxin are in proximity they will attach to the charcoal and become trapped and excreted in feces
Volume expander, colloid
Albumin
hetastarch (Hespan)

Action: Increases oncotic pressure in the intravascular space.
Volume expander, electrolyte solution.
Hypertonic saline: 3% saline

Action: Pulls fluid into vascular space. Used in cases of hypovolemia and reduce edema of the swollen brain.
NSAID's
Ibuprofen
ketorolac (Ketalar)

Action: Inhibits prostoglandin synthesis COX isoenzymes, resulting in analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects.
Neuromuscular blocker, nondepolarizing
atracurium (Tracrium)
pancuronium (Pavulon)
Rocuronium (Zemuron)
Vecuronium (Norcuron)

Action: Antagonizes acetylcholine receptors at the motor plate, producing muscle paralysis.
Neuromuscular blocker, depolarizing
succinylcholine (Anectine)

Action: Competes with the acetylcholine receptor of the motor plate on the muscle cell, resulting in muscle paralysis.
GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor
abciximab (ReoPro)
eptifibatide (Integrilin)
tirofiban (Aggrastat)

Action: Prevents the aggregation of platelets by inhibiting the integrin GP IIb/IIIa receptor.
Antiplatelet, nonnarcotic analgesic, antipyretic
Asprin,
ASA

Action: Prevents the formation of the chemical thromboxane A2, which causes platelets to clump together and form plugs that cause obstruction of small coronary arteries.
Beta adrenergic antagonist, antianginal, antihypertensive
atenolol (Tenormin)
labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate)
metaprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)
propranolol (Inderal)

Actions: Inhibits the strength of the heart's contractions and heart rate, resulting in a decrease in cardiac O2 demand. Also saturates the beta receptors and inhibits dilation of bronchial smooth muscle(Beta 2)
Anticholinergic: antimuscarinic
Atropine sulfate

Action: Competes reversibly with acetylcholine at the site of the muscarinic receptor. Receptors effected include: salivary, bronchial, sweat glands, eye heart, and GI tract.
Opioid agonist-antagonist
butorphanol (Stadol)
nalbuphine (Nubain) - synthetic

Action: Produces analgesia by binding to opioid receptors
Antiplatelet
clopidogrel (Plavix)

Action; Blocks platelet aggregation by antagonizing GP IIb/IIIa receptors.
Cotricosteroids
dexamethasone (Decadron)
hydrocortisone (Cortef)
methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol)
Predisone

Action: Reduces inflammation.
Antihistamine
diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

Action: Binds and blocks H1 histamine receptors.
Thrombolytic agent
plasminogen activator (tPA)
streptokinase (Streptase, Kabikinase)
reteplase (Retavase)
tenecteplase (TNKase)

Action: Dissolves thrombi plugs in arteries and restores blood flow.
Antiemetic
dolasetron (Anzemet)
promethazine (Phenergan)

Action: Prevents/reduces nausea and vomiting by binding and blocking a receptor for the brain chemical serotonin. Promethazine antagonizes H1 receptors
Electrolyte solution/replacement
Calcium gluconate
Magnesium sulfate
Potassium chloride
Sodium bicarbonate

Action: Individualized actions, but over all usage for electrolyte imbalances.
Antihypoglycemic
Dextrose (50%, 25%, 10%)

Action: Increases blood glucose levels.
Cardiac glycoside
digoxin (Lanoxin)

Action: Inhibits Na-K-ATP pump, resulting in an increase in Ca inside the heart muscle cell. This causes an increase in the force of contraction of the heart.
Adrenergic agent
dobutamine (Dubutrex)

Action: Acts primarily as a Beta 1 agonist, with minor Beta 2 and Alpha 1 effects. Increases myocardial contractility and stroke volume, with minor chronotropic effects, increasing C.O.
Adrenergic agonist, inotropic, vasopressor.
dopamine (Intropin) - vasopressor
epinephrine (Adrenalin)
norepinephrine (Levophed)- vasopressor
phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)
terbutaline (Brethine)

Action: Individualized action, however all agonize adrenergic receptors to different degrees.
Hypnotic, anesthesia induction agent
etomidate (Amidate)

Action: etomidate has a GABA like effect.
Narcotic analgesic, Schedule C II
fentanyl (Sublimaze)
meperidine (Demerol)

Action: Binds to opioid receptors producing analgesia and euphoria.
Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, antidote
flumazenil (Romazicon)

Action: Competes with benzodiazepines for binding at receptors. Reverses the sedative effects of benzos.
Loop Diuretic
furosemide (Lasix)

Action: Inhibits the absorption of sodium and chlorine ions and water in the Loop of Henle and tubules of the nephron. Results in increased production of urine.
Hormone
Glucagon
Insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R)

Action: Individualized actions resulting in either an increase in BSL or a decrease in BSL.
Antipsychotic agent
haloperidol (Haldol)

Actions: Selectively blocks postsynaptic dopamine receptors.
Anticoagulant
Heparin
warfarin (Coumadin)

Action:
Heparin: Acts on antithrombin III to reduce the ability of the blood to form clots, this preventing clot deposition in the coronary arteries.
warfarin: Inhibits the synthesis of vitamin K dependent clotting factors.
HMG coenzyme A statins
atorvastatin (Lipitor)
Fluvastatin (Lescol)
Lovastatin (Mevacor)
Pravastatin (Pravachol)
Rosuvastatin (Crestor)
Simvastatin (Zocor)

Action: Reduces the total level of circulating cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides.
Antihypertensive agent; vasodilator
hydralazine (Apresoline)
sodium nitroprusside (Nipride, Nitropress)

Action: Directly dilates the peripheral blood vessels.
General anesthetic
ketamine (Ketalar)

Action: Produces a state of anesthesia while maintaining airway reflexes, heart rate, and blood pressure.
Beta agonist
levalbuterol (Xopenex)

Action: Stimulates beta 2 receptors, resulting in relaxation of the smooth muscle of the lungs, uterus, and vasculature that supple skeletal muscle.
Osmotic Diuretic
mannitol (Osmitrol)

Action: Facilitates the flow of fluids out of tissues, including brain, and into interstitial fluid and blood. Reabsorption by kidneys is minimal, thus increasing urine output.
Opiate agonist Schedule C-II
morphine sulfate (Morphine)

Action: Binds with opioid receptors, reducing stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system caused by pain or anxiety. Reduces heart, cardiac work, and O2 consumption, as a result.
Opioid antagonist
naloxone (Narcan)

Action: Binds the opiod receptor and blocks the effects of narcotics.
Calcium channel blocker
nicardipine (Cardene)

Action: Blocks calcium movement into the smooth muscle of the blood vessel walls, causing vasodilation.
Antianginal agent
nitroglycerin (Nitrolingual, NitroQuick, Nitro-Dur)

Action: Relaxes vascular smooth muscle, thereby dilating peripheral arteries and veins. This causes pooling of the venous blood and decreases preload. Also reduces left ventricular systolic wall tension, thus decreasing afterload.
Inorganic gas; inhaled anesthetic
Nitrous oxide

Action: Unknown.
Alpha antagonist, antihypertensive
phentolamine (Regitine)

Action: Blocks alpha adrenergic receptors, causing vasodilation
Cholinergic agonist, antidote
pralidoxime (2-PAM, Protopam)

Action: Reactivates cholinesterase.
Anesthetic
propofol (Diprivan)

Action: Produces rapid and brief state of anesthesia.
Vitamin B1
Thiamine

Action: Thiamine combines with ATP to produce thiamine diphosphate, which acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism.
Nonadrenergic vasopressor
Vasopressin

Action: Causes vasoconstriction independent of adrenergic receptors or neural innervation.