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241 Cards in this Set

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When you check overrun, you are checking...
the weight of ice cream
What is the process by which the water content of a vegetable is replaced by a concentrated salt solution?
diffusion
Which recipe ingredient should be adjusted if a cake has a crunchy crust and compact moist texture?
sugar
Why do egg whites beat more easily at room temperature?
the surface tension is lower
Which pigment does not change color in an acid or alkaline solution?
carotene
The end products of cellular oxidation are
water, carbon dioxide and energy
Carbohydrates listed in order of decreasing sweetness are
Fructose, sucrose, glucose and sorbitol
The flakiness of pie crust depends on
the type of fat
A group of rats being fed gelatin as the sole protein source are not growing well. What is the likely reason?
gelatin has no tryptophan and is low in methionine and lysine
A #10 can holds how many cups of product?
13
If you replace half and half with whipping cream in ice cream, the effects on the ice crystals will be
a decrease in size because there is more fat
Research has shown that neural tube defects can be reduced with proper supplementation of
folic acid
The best laboratory value when assessing iron status is
ferritin
What is the best flour when making cakes?
All purpose flour
Where is lactose absorbed?
Small intestine
Considering the following smoke points of various fats, which would be the best to use for frying?
400F
Which minerals are involved in carbohydrate metabolism?
chromium and zinc
Acidic chyme becomes neutralized in the duodenum by
mixing with bicarbonate and fluids
The colon functions in the absorption of
water, salts, vitamin K, thiamin and riboflavin
To prevent frozen gravy from separating when thawed
prepare it with modified starch
How much fluid is lost through insensible losses
1 liter
An amino acid that cannot be produced by the body is
tryptophan
The following is a irreversible reaction
pyruvic acid into acetyl CoA
Riboflavin, thiamin and niacin are all involved in the
metabolism of carbohydrate
An increased plasma pyruvate level is an indication of
thiamin deficiency
Which of the following stabilizes an egg white foam?
An acid
Winterized oil is
clear when refrigerated
What may cause EKG abnormalities?
high serum potassium levels
In the fed state, the brain uses which nutrient as a source of energy?
Glucose
In the starved state, the brain uses which nutrient as an energy source?
Ketone bodies
Gluconeogenesis is
creation of glucose from glycerol and amino acids
Glycolysis is the
catabolism(breakdown) of carbohydrate
Glycogenolysis is the
breakdown of glycogen releasing glucose
The end product of aerobic glycolysis is
pyruvic acid
Protein bound iodine measures
level of thyroxine being produced
The hormone epinephrine
raises blood glucose during catabolic stress
A provitamin is
a nutrient that can be converted into a vitamin
The formula for producing the active form of vitamin D is
7 dehydrocholesterol converting into cholecalciferol
In the human, vitamin K is affected by
anticoagulants and antibiotics
Which hormone regulates calcium levels?
Parathyroid
Pyridoxine acts as a coenzyme in
deamination and transamination (make and breakdown)
Which vitamins are synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
biotin, pantothenic acid and vitamin K
Ascorbic acid aids in healing. What is the conversion that applies to this?
proline-->hydroxyproline--> collagen
Biotin is considered a coenzyme in the synthesis of
fatty acids
Food iron is in the _____ form
ferric
Food iron is reduced in the stomach to the more absorbable form of
ferrous
Which foods would aid in the absorption of an iron supplement?
Orange juice and hamburger
Bile is produced in the ___ and stored in the ___
liver, gallbladder
Cholycystokinin causes
contraction of the gallbladder
Which enzymes are involved in protein digestion?
pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase
Protein digestion begins in the
stomach
Lactase is produced in the
small intestine
Which enzymes are secreted by the pancreas?
amylase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, trypsin and chymotrypsin
Which conversion requires glucose-6-phosphatase?
liver glycogen into glucose
NADPH is
essential in the synthesis of fatty acids
What vitamins are required for the conversation of pyruvic acid into active acetate?
thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid and NAD
Which vitamin acts as a coenzyme in transamination?
pyridoxine
Glucocorticoids are
adrenal hormones
Glucocorticoids convert...
protein to glucose
Fats enter the blood as ____ and leave the liver as _____
chylomicrons, lipoproteins
The oxidation of fatty acids forms
acetyl CoA
Pantothenic acid, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin are all involved in converting...
pyruvate into acetyl CoA
What side effect can be reversed with vitamin A?
Nyctalopia
Fresh meat contamination comes mainly from
salmonella
Which amino acids must be present in a parenteral solution?
Tryptophan, phenylalanine, threonine and isoleucine
Iron absorption is enhanced by
acidic chyme in the duodenum
What inhibits gluconeogenesis?
Insulin
Which food has the lowest cholesterol content?
Peanut butter and crackers
What is the difference between cake flour and bread flour?
Cake flour has less gluten, weaker gluten and less protein
Vitamin A is involved in
development of tissue and skin
A patient with metabolic alkalosis would have
retention of base by the kidneys
Which foods should be washed just before serving?
Strawberries and mushrooms
Which government agency inspects and grades meat?
USDA
If linoleic acid replaces CHO in the diet
LDL decreases and HDL increases
____ is not absorbed directly into the portal blood
long chained fatty acids
When substituting buttermilk for whole milk in pastry
Increase the baking soda
Ground meat will spoil faster than sliced meat because
more surface area is exposed
Evaporated milk has
slightly more than half the fat removed
Ketones are mostly associated with
fats
Which best describes sorbitol and glucose
Sorbitol is absorbed more slowly
What causes egg yolk color to change?
Alteration of the feed provided
Which data is needed to convert weight into volume?
specific gravity
The tartness in fruits and vegetables is due to
tannins
When a white sauce tastes starchy and grainy, the likely cause is
uncooked flour
The scientific process by which water makes lettuce crisp is
osmotic pressure of water filled vacuoles
Four hours after eating you develop nausea and diarrhea but no fever...the cause may be...
staphyloccocus aureus
Which hormone greatly influences the BMR?
Thyroxine
If linoleic acid replaces saturated fat in the diet
total cholesterol including HDL decrease
Which oil is highest in monounsaturated fatty acids?
Olive
Which oil is highest in saturated fat?
Coconut
What may result in metabolic acidosis?
decreased retention of bicarbonate
A high protein diet increases the need for
riboflavin and water
Dry heat cookery should be used for which cut of meat?
Near the backbone
What color do onions turn when cooked in an aluminum pan?
Yellow
Which cooking method would best convert collagen to gelatin in a bottom round roast?
Braising
Which method of bread making is not as dependent on the length of time the dough sits to rise?
Continuous method
Which nutrient is added for flour enrichment?
Iron
What does the term USDA graded on meat tell the consumer?
It defines quality
A cake with a fallen center may be the result of
excess sugar and excess fat
Which of the following has the least amount of saturated fat?
Evaporated skim milk
Coarse texture in a cake is due to
too much baking powder or sugar
Nitrogen equilibrium is associated with a
25 year old male
Childrens diets are found to be low in iron due to emphasis on
milk
Which mineral is involved in blood clotting?
Calcium
Which of the following is true regarding flour?
Cake flour has the least and weakest gluten
The main function of glycolysis is to provide
pyruvate for the TCA cycle
Food service employees should wash their hands for at least
20 seconds
Metabolites for the Krebs cycle
water, energy, carbon dioxide
Meat graded US Standard is the grade given at the
time of slaughter
A cake with a fallen center may be the result of
excess sugar and excess fat
Which of the following has the least amount of saturated fat?
evaporated skim milk
Coarse texture in a cake is due to
too much baking powder or sugar
Nitrogen equilibrium is associated
a 25 year old male
Children's diets are found to be low in iron due to emphasis on
milk
Meat graded US standard is the grade given at the time of
slaughter
Which of the following substitutions will most decrease the sodium content of a biscuit? 1. Low sodium milk
2. Egg substitute for egg
3. Low sodium baking powder for baking powder
1 and 3
What pasta contains egg?
noodles
A patient who is iron deficient should consume ___with a good iron source
orange juice
A serum sodium level of 150 mEq/L indicates
dehydration
Cabbage should be cooked in a ___quantity of water
large
To decrease sodium intake, substitute
unsalted margarine for regular margarine
Apples stored in a controlled environment would
have extended life and improved marketing quality
What oils can be winterized?
Corn, Soy and Cottonseed
What fruits would you give a person who is mildly hypokalemic?
1 piece of cantaloupe
A serum sodium level of 150 mEq/L is a sign of
hypernatremia (high sodium levels in the blood), dehydration
To increase potassium intake, consume a snack of
a grilled cheese and tomato sandwich and strawberries
If protein intake is doubled, which nutrient needs to be increased?
Pyridoxine (B6)
Illness due to Bacillus cereus is due to contaminated
rice products and starchy foods
The Cori Cycle converts
lactate into pyruvate
Fats high in monounsaturated fatty acids include
olive and canola oils
Fats high in polyunsaturated fatty acids include
safflower and corn oils
Green beans cooked in tomato sauce turn ___ due to___
olive green due to pheophytin
If you are on a low phosphorus diet, what food should you most avoid?
Beef
A 5 month old is diagnosed with salmonella, what is likely the cause?
Table food
An 8 month old baby contracts botulism, what is the likely cause?
cereal and honey
Which is the best source of emulsification?
Eggs
The kidneys respond to respiratory acidosis by
increasing the retention of bicarbonate
A serum sodium level of 150 mEq/L may be due to
an increased level of aldosterone
this level also indicates dehydration
Green peas held on the serving line may turn olive green due to
pheophytin
In cereal production, enrichment adds
iron
cured meat is pink due to
nitrites
A serum sodium level of 115 mEq/L may be due to
overhydration
Butter has fatty acids in this order of predominance
SAT, MUFA and PUFA
Margarine has fatty acids in this order of predominance
PUFA, MUFA and SAT
Lactic acid is produced by
glycolysis
Which of the following amino acids is a precursor for seratonin
Tryptophan
When on Dicumarol, avoid increasing your intake of
Spinach
Food was held at 70F for a long time in anaerobic conditions. Eight hours after eating it you become ill. What is the culprit?
Clostridium perfringens
Energy expenditure of humans can be measured by
oxygen consumption
Gastric proteolysis requires
hydrochloric acid
Patients with early signs of xerophthalmia should consume
liver, milk and eggs
Sorbitol is ___than sucrose
less sweet and has a lower glycemic index
Which mineral is absorbed through the intestine and transported with ceruloplasmin in the blood?
Copper
The Schilling test detects defects in the absorption of
Cyanocobalamin (B12)
Which of the following should be avoided on a low sodium diet?
Turkey roll
What is the effect of excess caffeine intake?
insomnia
The toxic level of Vitamin A has been identified as
10000 IU
The best way to prevent the spread of food borne illness is to
wash hands regularly
The amino acid tryptophan can be converted into
serotonin
A muffin has long tunnels from top to bottom. Next time you make this recipe you should
avoid overmixing the batter
Prevention of an outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes requires special care because of
its ability to grow at temps of 34-113F
Phenylalanine is a precursor for
Tyrosine
A cutting board is used to cut up raw chicken Then it was used to cut up raw vegetables. Guests eating the meal likely became ill from
Salmonella
Decreased levels of seratonin are associated with
increase in CHO appetite
Carbohydrate, fat and protein are all converted into
acetyl CoA
If energy needs increase, which vitamins are needed in higher amounts?
thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid
How many mEq of sodium are in one gram of sodium?
43
How can you preserve thiamin when cooking pork?
insert a meat thermometer and cook it to 160F in an oven at 325F
A good source of Vitamin A for pre school children would be
cantelope pieces
Which amino acid is especially glucogenic?
Alanine
If CHO intake is increased, which vitamin needs to be increased?
Thiamin
The rate of oxidation of which branch chained amino acid increases significantly during moderate exercise?
Leucine
What should you do with leftover sliced beef from lunch?
Refrigerate immediately and serve within two days
A food is bacteria safe if it is
acidic and dry
French fries made from stored potatoes would have changes in 1. Taste
2. Texture
3. Appearance
1, 2 and 3
What percent of protein and fat converts to glucose?
58% protein, 10% fat
Excess amounts of zinc may lead to a deficiency of
copper
When adding bran to a flour mixture, you should increase ___
the flour and the liquid
Glycerol, amino acids and free fatty acids will have what effect on the hypothalamus gland?
Decrease in satiety
What is a digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas?
Amylase
Clostridium perfringens is often found in
meat and gravy mixtures in large quantities
Salmonella sources are often
raw produce and uncooked foods of animal origin
What must be fortified with folic acid?
Cornmeal
Pie crust is moist the day after cooking...why?
Retrogradation of the filling
What is the main purpose of water in the body?
Acts as a medium for cell metabolism
What is fluid seeping from a congealed product called?
Syneresis
What food would be a common cause of salmonella in a salad bar?
Egg salad
Which food borne pathogen would most likely contaminate cooked rice or pasta in open pans at room temperature?
Bacillus cereus
Frozen chicken has been thawed in warm water, you should
discard it
When substituting butter for lard in pastry...use more or less?
use more
The purpose of an emulsifier in margarine is to
keep water and fat from separating
What must be reduced to simpler components before it can be transported across the epithelial cells of the intestine?
Whey
Adding bran to a bread recipe will
decrease the volume
An angel food cake is made without cream of tartar, what is the result?
A yellowy cake
All baking powders contain
sodium bicarbonate
Beef bottom round should be cooked
in water for an extended time
Which of the following combines with CoA in two carbon fragments to make acetyl CoA to then enter the Krebs cycle to make energy?
Fatty acids
What is the best way to cook a roast?
slowly in the oven at 325 F
What meat has the most bacteria?
ground beef
What is the product of pyruvate breakdown?
acetyl CoA
True or false...fructose is sweeter than glucose
True
True or false...glucose is less sweet than sucrose
True
What is the grade for fresh produce?
US No.1
What gives structure to quick breads?
Egg and flour
When taking an anticoagulant, avoid
Vitamin E supplements above 400 IU a day
What is the function of cream of tartar in a recipe?
Prevents the Maillard reaction (browning)
The flour with the most starch is
cake
Salmonella contamination in a foodservice can be best controlled by focusing on
sanitizing of the meat slicer
Homemade rolls are crumbly and fall apart easily. The most likely cause of the poor texture in the yeast bread is
use of a lower protein flour
According to Chinese beliefs, foods and herbs that may be used to treat illnesses are grouped as
yin (dark and cold) and yang (bright and hot)
A commercial muffin mix is described as a "rich formula" which means it contains high proportions of
sugar and shortening
The greatest effect on the yield of meat cooked to a uniform internal temperature is produced by the
cooking time and oven temperature
The most likely source of clostridium perfringens is
meat
What stabilizes egg in a recipe
an acid
A natural plant hormone that is used to ripen fruits is
ethylene
Aseptically packaged milk should be stored
in dry storage
Which of the following has a slow onset and is anaerobic?
Clostridium botulinum
A frozen meal contains steak, mashed potatoes, BHA, BHT and TVP, the TVP is used to
retain water and add protein
If broccoli in a vegetable mixture turns olive green during holding it may be due to what juice?
lemon juice
In the alanine cycle, alanine is released from muscle, taken up from the liver and
deaminated to release glucose
In the Cori cycle, lactate is converted into
pyruvate
Normal saline has ___ mEq sodium/L
154
An amylase deficiency would result in
decreased glycolysis
Fresh eggs in the shell can be stored in a refrigerator at 40 degrees for
3 weeks
Trypsin and chymotrypsin are
pancreatic enzymes that provide proteolytic action
Acid-base abnormalities in an uncontrolled diabetic are likely due to
metabolic acidosis
A patient's nitrogen balance study showed he consumed 10 grams of protein and released 6 grams of nitrogen in the urine. This is
Negative nitrogen balance
Kidneys help control pH by
controlling the ratio of hydrogen ions to bicarbonate excretion
Pernicious anemia is likely to occur following a
gastrectomy
When someone loses fluid through their lungs and skin, this is called
total insensible fluid loss
Which pigment can be converted into a vitamin?
carotenoids
The amount of ceruloplasmin is affected by what disease?
Wilsons disease
An edematous person may actually be dehydrated because
fluid is retained extracellularly
What usually occurs when iso-caloric amounts of omega three fatty acids are substituted for saturated fatty acids?
decreased triglycerides, little change in total cholesterol
When substituted for saturated fats in the diet, which of the following oils will likely lower total cholesterol but also lower HDL cholesterol?
Safflower oil
You are a Food Service Dietitian and would like to make lower fat brownies. What is the best way to cut the fat?
Use prune puree in place of half the fat
You want to keep lemon meringue pie at its peak. What should you do?
Keep the pie refrigerated
A child is lethargic and irritable with diarrhea. The cause may be
lead poisoning
A child is at the 95th percentile BMI for his age. He is
obese
A child is at 85th percentile. He is
overweight
How many calories are needed by a full term infant weighing 11 pounds at 3 months of age?
around 540