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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Predictability of peer evaluations?
Comparable to supervisor evaluations in terms of reliability and validity. Useful for predicting training success and promotions. Rarely used in organizations.
Acceptable questions for an applicant under ADA?
Permissible to ask how they would perform, physically or mentally, essential job functions. Cannot ask about the disability.
Contrast Alderfer's ERG theory to Maslow's hierarchical need theory.
ERG is a modified version of Maslow's. Reduced needs to three: 1) existence, 2) relatedness, 3) growth. Predicts that needs become MORE important as they are filled. More evidence to support this theory than Maslow's.
What are the methods of job redesign and expected outcomes?
1)Job rotation, 2) job enrichment, 3) job enlargement comprise job redesign. Outcome: Reduces
How does job enrichment differ from job enlargement from predicting outcomes?
Job enrichment maximizes responsibility and autonomy while job enlargement has not been show to do this.
What is the assumption of the empirical-rational model of decision making?
"Rational" means gaining info on all possible alternatives and their consequences. Therefore, decision makers have an understanding of all alternatives and their consequences.
What are the symptoms of job burnout?
Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment.
What is the consequence of job underload?
chronic boredom
What type of ability is predictive of job performance across a wide variety of jobs?
"g" general cognitive ability; incrementally more than specific ability tests
How does "Equity Theory" predict job motivation?
Equity theory predicts that job motivation is related to a comparison of one's own input/outcome ratio to the ratio of comparable others.
Underlying assumption of goal-setting theory, equity theory, and expectancy theory?
Assumption that human cognition affects behavior. These 3 theories view motivation and performance as directly linked to cognitive events.
What is the cognitive event in goal-setting theroy, equity theory, and expectancy theory?
1)goal-setting: conscious acceptance of goals. 2) equity theory: self-other comparisons. 3) expectancy theory: "beliefs" related to effort/performance and performance/outcomes.
What are characteristics of "transformational" leaders?
Transformational leaders 1) recognize need for change, 2) communicate vision and gain commitment from followers 3) attempt to raise level of awareness/consciousness 4) strengthen their ability to control their own destinies.
How is procedural justice different from interactional justice?
Procedural justice refers to fairness in formal procedures while interactional justice (a subset of procedural justice)refers specifically to fairness in carrying out those procedures.
How is distributive justice different from retributive justice?
Distributive justice refers to the fairness of outcomes while retributive justice refers to the fairness of punishment for a wrongdoing.
How does "brainstorming" research inform performance?
In poorly structured, creative tasks, people work better alone than people in a group.
What is a characteristic of a transactional leader?
Leadership characteristic of abdicating responsibilty and avoiding decisions.
What is a characteristic of a charismatic leader?
Leadership characteristics of
"acting as a role model" and being convinced of the moral rightness of his or her beliefs.
What is the approach of human factors psychology?
The focus is on the "fit" between workers and the equipment/tools used by employees. Includes the physical layout of the workplace to identify causes of accidents/work-related problems.
What percentage of job satisfaction is related to heredity?
30%. Found in a study of monozygotic twins reared apart.
What is the outcome of teaching raters about their susceptibility to bias (central tendency, leniency)?
Performance ratings may become less accurate because raters will go out of their way to avoid the biases they learned about.
How does Maslow's need hierarchy relate to organizational settings?
There is little to no application from this need theory to organizational settings.
In the workplace, how do heterogeneous and homogeneous groups differ?
Hetero groups experience mroe conflict and can solve more complex tasks. Both groups tend to make more extreme workplace decisions than individuals working alone.
What is the basic premise underlying goal-setting theory?
Individuals consciously accept their goals, intend to achieve them, and regulate their behavior.
How does the ADA inform drug testing procedures?
ADA permits only post-offer, pre-employment screening. Drug testing is not prohibited during pre-employment or employment.
What are the components and consequences of organizational commitment?
Job commitment=Affective & Instrumental (calculative) components. Affect is related to job performance and instrumental is predictive of intention to stay on the job.
What are situational interviews and how does their predictive validity differ from traditional interviews?
Situation interviews present candidates with specific situations in order to sample job-related behaviors and make use of objective scoring techniques. Adequate reliability and validity.
What is the 1st step in Fielder's Contingency (LPC) Theory?
LPC=least preferred colleague or subordinate whom leaders like least.
1) Determine if leader is task versus people oriented by determining high or low LPC.
High LPC = leader rates the LPC with a high rating, then considered relationship-oriented.
Low LOPC - rates LPC low, then considered task oriented supervisor.
What are the 2nd steps in Fielder's Contingency (LPC) Theory?
Step 2=determine if leader style is situational control or favorableness.
Situational control = favorableness or how likely it is that the task will be accomplished, how powerful the leader is and the relationship between leader and subordinates.
What does Fielder's Contingency (LPC) Theory predict?
Low LPCs are most effective as leaders in situations that are either highly favoralbe or unfavorable while high LPCs are most effective as leaders in moderately favorable leaders.
What are the components of Cognitive Resource Theory?
Developed by Fielder. Examiens whether a directive versus non-drective leadership style is more effect depedning on congitive resources (ability) of employee. Also stress levels, experience of leaders, and group support for the leader.
What is the focus of Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model?
The decision-making aspect of leadership. This theory examines how much leaders allow their subordinates to participate in making decisions. Model says that the most effect sytle depends on importance of the decision and time required to make it.
House's Path-Goal Theory -
based on leader increasing personal payoffs for subordinates and making things easier by clarifying and reducing roadbloks. Help them achieve their goals.
4 leadership styles of House's Path Goal Theory?
Directive, supportive, achievement oriented, participative.
Vroom & Yetton's 5 styles of leadership
1) autocratic ; 2) consultative; 3) group decision making with the leader; 4) group decision making with out the leader; 5) and autocratic with information.
Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model
Theory looks at employees' readiness to perform. If employee is not ready, leader should tell them what to do; if they are more ready, they need less task orientation for the leader.
What are three types of "position power" among leaders?
1) Reward power is based on the ability to provide rewards (e.g., offering bonuses. 2) Coercive powere is related to ability to punish (e.g., fire). 3) Legitimate power is based on hierarchy of organization (powere that comes from being in a supervisory position). Coercive powere most negatively correlated with satisfaction.
What are the two types of personal power among leaders?
1) Referent power is based on identifying with, admiring, or likeing the person in the leadership position. 2) Expert power comes from haing expertise and skills in the relevant area. These 2 are also called incremental power and are the most important reasons for complying with managers requests.
How does the rational-economic model differ from the administrative approach in leadership decision making?
Rational (classical approach) uses clear definitions of the problem, examining alternatives, & consequences, and choosing optimum solution. Administrative (or satisfying style) is used when partial knowledge is available and choose the first alternative that is satisfactory.
How does distributive negotiation differ from integrative/principled negotiation?
Distributive involves all parties claiming part of the pie while integrative involves enlarging the pie.