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136 Cards in this Set

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CELLS PERFORM METABOLIC REACTIONS THAT PROVIDE ENERGY FOR WHAT?
ENERGY FOR SYNTHESIS OF ATP
2 ESSENTIAL INGREDIENTS FOR METABOLIC PROCESSES?
OXYGEN AND ORGANIC MOLECULES
INTRODUCTION OF MATERIALS INTO THE DIGESTIVE TRACT BY WAY OF MOUTH
INGESTION
MOVES FOOD ALONG THE ALIMENTARY CANAL. IT INCLUDES SWALLOWING AND PERISTALSIS.
PROPULSION
THE MAJOR MEANS OF PROPULSION, INVOLVES ALTERNATE WAVES OF CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION OF SMOOTH MUSCLES IN THE ORGAN WALLS
PERISTALSIS
PHYSICAL MANIPULATION OR DISTORTION THAT MAKES MATERIALS EASIER TO PROPEL ALONG DIGESTIVE TRACT
MECHANICAL DIGESTION
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF MECHANICAL DIGESTION?
INCREASES SURGACE AREA FOR ENZYMATIC ACTION
MEETING POINT OF THE TEETH
OCCLUSION
OF THE DIVISIONS OF THE PHARYNX, WHICH IS NOT PART OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
NASOPHARYNX
WHAT'S THE EXTRA LAYER OF STOMACH IN THE PYLORIC REGION?
OBLIQUE MUSCLES
FUNCTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID?
ACTIVATES PEPSIN, BREAKS UP CONNECTIVE TISSUES AND CELL WALL, CONVERTS FERIC IONS TO FERIS IONS AND DESTROYS BACTERIA DIGESTED
INACTIVE FORM OF PESIN
PEPSINOGEN
ONLY STOMACH FUNCTION ESSENTIAL TO LIFE
SECRETION OF INTRINSIC FACTOR
COMMON PASSAGEWAY OF FOOD, LIQUID, AND AIR
PHARYNX
WHICH DIVISION OF THE PHARYNX IS LINED BY PSUEDOSTRATISFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
NASOPHARYNX
DIVISION OF PHARYNX LINED WITH STRATISFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
OROPHARYNX AND LARYNGOPHARYNX
THE ESOPHAGUS PENETRATES THE DIAPHRAGM AT WHAT STRUCTURE
ESOPHAGEAL HIATUS
WHERE IS INTRINSIC FACTOR PRODUCED?
STOMACH
WHAT IS A SOUPY ACIDIC MIXTURE OF PARTIALLY DIGESTED FOOD CALLED?
CHYME
SMALLEST REGION OF STOMACH, LOCATED NEAR ESOPHAGUS
CARDIA
CONTAINS ABUNDANT MUCUS GLANDS THAT PREVENT ACIDS AND ENZYMES FROM ENTERING ESOPHAGUS
CARDIAC SPHINCTER
REGULATES RELEASE OF CHYME INTO DUODENUM
PYLORIC SPHINCTER
LARGEST REGION OF STOMACH IS THE BODY, WHAT IS ITS FUNCTION
IT SERVES AS MIXING TANK FOR FOOD AND SECRETIONS
MUCOSA IS THROWN INTO PROMINANT FOLDS KNOWN AS WHAT
RUGAE
3 LAYES OF MUSCLE ASSOCIATED WITH STOMACH
LONGITUDINAL, CIRCULAR, AND OBLIQUE
WHICH OF THE STOMACH MUSCLES COULD BE CONSIDERED "EXTRA"
OBLIQUE
5 SECRETORY CELLS OF GASTRIC GLANDS
MUCOUS CELLS, PARIETAL CELLS, CHIEF CELLS, STEM CELLS, AND ENTEROENDOCRINE CELLS
CELLS THAT ARE PREDOMINANT IN CARDIAC AND PYLORIC GLANDS, SECRETE MUCUS, AND ARE CONCENTRATED IN NECK OF GLANDS NEAR OPENINGS OF GASTRIC PITS
MUCOUS CELLS
FOUND AT BASE OF GASTRIC PITS AND NECK OF GLANDS, THEY DIVIDE RAPIDLY AND MOVE UP TO SURFACE AND DOWN INTO GLANDS TO REPLACE CELLS
REGENERATIVE OR STEM CELLS
MOSTLY IN GASTRIC GLANDS, BUT SOME IN PYLORIC GLANDS, FOUND MOSTLY IN PROXIMAL PORTIONS OF GLAND
PARIETAL CELLS
MOST ABUNDANT OF GASTRIC CELLS, LOCATED AT BASE OF GASTRIC GLANDS
CHIEF OR ZYGOMATIC CELLS
WHAT DO CHIEF CELLS SECRETE
PEPSINOGIN, CHYMOSIN, AND LIPASE
CELLS CONCENTRATED AT LOWER END OF GLANDS AND SECRETE HORMONES TO REGULATE DIGESTION
ENTEROENDOCRINE CELLS
HORMONE THAT STIMULATES GASTRIC MOTILITY
SEROTONIN
HORMONE THAT STIMULATES SECRETION OF HCl
HISTAMINE
HORMONE THAT STIMULATES GASTRIC GLANDS
GASTRIN
HORMONE THAT INHIBITS RELEASE OF GASTRIN
SOMATOSTATIN
A RELEASE OF WATER, ACIDS, ENZYMES, BUFFERS AND SALTS, AND MUCUS BY THE EPITHELIUM OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT AND GLANDULAR ORGANS
SECRETION
MOVEMENT OF ORGANIC SUBSTRATES, ELECTOLYTES, VITAMINS, AND WATER ACROSS DIGESTIVE EPITHELIUM AND INTO INTERSTITIAL FLUID OF DIGESTIVE TRACT.
ABSORPTION
LINES THE INNER SURFACE OF THE BODY WALL
PARIETAL PERITONEUM
COVERS THE ORGANS WITHIN THE PERITONEAL CAVITY
VISCERAL PERITONEUM OR SEROSA
THE SPACE BETWEEN THE 2 PERITONEUMS IS CALLED ?
PERITONEAL CAVITY
SECRETED BY THE SEROUS MEMBRANE TO LUBRICATE PERITONEAL SURFACES
PERITONEAL FLUID (SEROUS FLUID)
MOST EXTENSIVE OF THE SEROUS MEMBRANES
PERITONEUM
DOUBLE SHEETS OF PERITONEAL MEMBRANE THAT SUPPORT AND STABILIZE ORGANS IN THE ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY
MESENTERIES
PROVIDES ROUTE FOR BLOOD VESSELS TO AND FROM LIVER
LESSER OMENTUM
HELPS STABILIZE POSITION OF LIVER RELATIVE TO DIAPHRAGM AND ABDOMINAL WALL
FALCIFORM LIGAMENT
MESENTERY THAT HANGS LIKE AN APRON BETWEEN BODY WALL AND ANTERIOR SURFACE OF SMALL INTESTINE
GREATER OMENTUM
PROVIDES STABILITY BUT PERMITS A DEGREE OF INDEPENDENT MOVEMENT FOR SMALL INTESTINE
MESENTERY PROPER
MESENTERY ASSOCIATED WITH PORTION OF LARGE INTESTINE
MESOCOLON
SUPPORTS TRANSVERSE COLON
TRANSVERSE MESENTERY
SUPPORTS SIGMOID COLON
SIGMOID MESOCOLON
INNER LINING OF DIGESTIVE TRACT THAT CONSISTS OF LAYER OF EPITHELIUM AND UNDERLYING LAYER OF LAMINA PROPRIA
MUCOSA OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE
ITS MAJOR FUNCTIONS INCLUDE SECRETION OF ENZYMES, HORMONES, AND MUCUS, ABSORPTION OF DIGESTED FOOD INTO BLOOD, AND PROTECTION FROM DISEASE
MUCOSA
DEPENDING ON LOCATION AND STRESSES ITS SUBJECTED TO, WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF EPITHELIUM IN THE MUCOSA
STRATISFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM, SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
AREAS WITH MORE STRESSES ARE TYPICALLY LINED WITH WHAT TISSUE?
STRATISFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
AREAS THAT ARE IMPORTANT TO ABSORPTION, ARE LINED WITH WHAT
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
WHAT IS THE EXPLANATION OF WHY RADIATION AND ANTICANCER DRUGS HAVE A DRASTIC EFFECT ON THE DIGESTIVE TRACT?
HIGH RATE OF CELL DIVISION IS INHIBITED (PREVENTS MITOSIS)
MUCOSA IS OFTEN THROWN INTO _?_ , WHICH DISAPPEAR AS THE TRACT FILLS
LONGITUDINAL FOLDS
_?_ INCREASE SURFACE AREA FOR ABSORPTION IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT.
PLICAE OR PERMANENT TRANSVERSE FOLDS
WHAT ARE THE LONGITUDINAL FOLDS IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT CALLED?
RUGAE
CONTAINS BLOOD VESEELS, SENSORY NERVE ENDINGS, LUMPHATIC VESSELS, SMOOTH MUSCLES, AND SCATTERED AREAS OF LYMPHOID TISSUE.
LAMINA PROPRIA
CONTAINS SECRETORY CELLS OF MUCOUS GLANDS
LAMINA PROPRIA
NARROW BAND OF SMOOTH MUSCLES INVOLVED IN MOVEMENT OF FOOD
MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE
INNER LAYER OF MUSCLES THAT ENCIRCLE THE LUMEN
CIRCULAR MUSCLES
OUTER LAYER CONTAINING MUSCLES ORIENTED PARALLEL TO THE AXIS OF THE TRACT
LONGITUDINAL LAYER
CONTAINS CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF BLOOD VESSELS, LYNPHATIC VESSELS, AND NERVES...IT SURROUNDS THE MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE
SUBMUCOSA
CONTAINS SENSORY NEURONS, PARASYMPATHERIC GANGLIONIC NEURONS, AND SYMPATHETIC POSTGANGLIONIC FIBERS THAT INNERVATE THE MUCOSA AND SUBMUCOSA
PLEXUS OF MEISSNER OF SUBMUCOSAL PLEXUS
LAYER THAT STIMULATES SECRETIONS
SUBMUCOSA
CONTAINS PARASYMPATHETIC AND SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION AND IS DOMINATED BY SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE
MUSCULARIS
LOCATED BETWEEN THE CIRCULAR AND LONGITUDINAL LAYERS, ITS NEURONS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR COORDINATING THE MOVEMENTS ALONG THE TRACT
PLEXUS AUERBACH OR MYENTERIC PLEXUS
THESE MUSCLES CONTRACT AND DECREASE THE DIAMETER OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
CIRCULAR LAYER
THESE MUSCLES CONTRACT TO SHORTEN THE TUBE AND ARE IMPORTANT MAINLY TO MOVEMENT ALONG THE TRACT
LONGITUDINAL LAYER
OUTERMOST COVERING OF THE VISCERAL PERITONEUM
SEROSA
ANCHORS TO NEARBY STRUCTURES AND FOUND IN THE ORAL CAVITY, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, AND RECTUM
ADVENTITIA
TUBE FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS
ALIMENTARY CANAL OR DIGESTIVE TRACT OR GI TRACT
ONLY THING IN ORAL CAVITY NOT ACTED UPON BY ENZYMES
PROTEINS
SURROUND THE BASE OF EACH TOOTH AND ARE FOUND ON THE AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLARY AND MANDIBULAR BONES
GINGIVAE
PREVENTS FOOD FROM ENTERING THE NASAL CAVITY DURING SWALLOWING
UVULA
COMMON SITES OF INFECTION, YET MAIN FUNCTION IS TO PREVENT INFECTION
PALATINE TONSILS
ON POSTERIOR WALL OF PHARYNX, ABOVE THE BORDER OF THE SOFT PALATE
PHARYNGEAL TONSILS OR ADENOIDS
TONGUE IS COVERED BY MUCOUS MEMBRANE AND CONNECTED TO FLOOR OF MOUTH BY WHAT
FRENULUM
WHAT IS THE FRENULUM'S FUNCTION?
PREVENTS EXTREME MOVEMENT OF THE TONGUE
WHEN FRENULUM IS TOO RESTRICTIVE AND A PERSON IS UNABLE TO SPEAK NORMALLY WHAT IS THIS CONDITION CALLED?
ANKYLOGLOSSIA
THE TONGUE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF WHAT?
SKELETAL MUSCLE
WHAT IS THE EXPLANATION OF WHY RADIATION AND ANTICANCER DRUGS HAVE A DRASTIC EFFECT ON THE DIGESTIVE TRACT?
HIGH RATE OF CELL DIVISION IS INHIBITED (PREVENTS MITOSIS)
MUCOSA IS OFTEN THROWN INTO _?_ , WHICH DISAPPEAR AS THE TRACT FILLS
LONGITUDINAL FOLDS
_?_ INCREASE SURFACE AREA FOR ABSORPTION IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT.
PLICAE OR PERMANENT TRANSVERSE FOLDS
WHAT ARE THE LONGITUDINAL FOLDS IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT CALLED?
RUGAE
CONTAINS BLOOD VESEELS, SENSORY NERVE ENDINGS, LUMPHATIC VESSELS, SMOOTH MUSCLES, AND SCATTERED AREAS OF LYMPHOID TISSUE.
LAMINA PROPRIA
CONTAINS SECRETORY CELLS OF MUCOUS GLANDS
LAMINA PROPRIA
NARROW BAND OF SMOOTH MUSCLES INVOLVED IN MOVEMENT OF FOOD
MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE
INNER LAYER OF MUSCLES THAT ENCIRCLE THE LUMEN
CIRCULAR MUSCLES
OUTER LAYER CONTAINING MUSCLES ORIENTED PARALLEL TO THE AXIS OF THE TRACT
LONGITUDINAL LAYER
CONTAINS CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF BLOOD VESSELS, LYNPHATIC VESSELS, AND NERVES...IT SURROUNDS THE MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE
SUBMUCOSA
CONTAINS SENSORY NEURONS, PARASYMPATHERIC GANGLIONIC NEURONS, AND SYMPATHETIC POSTGANGLIONIC FIBERS THAT INNERVATE THE MUCOSA AND SUBMUCOSA
PLEXUS OF MEISSNER OF SUBMUCOSAL PLEXUS
LAYER THAT STIMULATES SECRETIONS
SUBMUCOSA
CONTAINS PARASYMPATHETIC AND SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION AND IS DOMINATED BY SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE
MUSCULARIS
LOCATED BETWEEN THE CIRCULAR AND LONGITUDINAL LAYERS, ITS NEURONS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR COORDINATING THE MOVEMENTS ALONG THE TRACT
PLEXUS AUERBACH OR MYENTERIC PLEXUS
THESE MUSCLES CONTRACT AND DECREASE THE DIAMETER OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
CIRCULAR LAYER
THESE MUSCLES CONTRACT TO SHORTEN THE TUBE AND ARE IMPORTANT MAINLY TO MOVEMENT ALONG THE TRACT
LONGITUDINAL LAYER
OUTERMOST COVERING OF THE VISCERAL PERITONEUM
SEROSA
ANCHORS TO NEARBY STRUCTURES AND FOUND IN THE ORAL CAVITY, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, AND RECTUM
ADVENTITIA
TUBE FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS
ALIMENTARY CANAL OR DIGESTIVE TRACT OR GI TRACT
ONLY THING IN ORAL CAVITY NOT ACTED UPON BY ENZYMES
PROTEINS
SURROUND THE BASE OF EACH TOOTH AND ARE FOUND ON THE AVEOLAR PROCESS OF MAXILLARY AND MANDIBULAR BONES
GINGIVAE
PREVENTS FOOD FROM ENTERING THE NASAL CAVITY DURING SWALLOWING
UVULA
COMMON SITES OF INFECTION, YET MAIN FUNCTION IS TO PREVENT INFECTION
PALATINE TONSILS
ON POSTERIOR WALL OF PHARYNX, ABOVE THE BORDER OF THE SOLF PALATE
PHARYNGEAL TONSILS OR ADENOIDS
TONGUE IS COVERED BY MUCOUS MEMBRANE AND CONNECTED TO FLOOR OF MOUTH BY WHAT
FRENULUM
WHAT IS THE FRENULUM'S FUNCTION?
PREVENTS EXTREME MOVEMENT OF THE TONGUE
WHEN FRENULUM IS TOO RESTRICTIVE AND A PERSON IS UNABLE TO SPEAK NORMALLY WHAT IS THIS CONDITION CALLED?
ANKYLOGLOSSIA
THE TONGUE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF WHAT?
SKELETAL MUSCLE
POSTERIOR REGION OF TONGUE ANCHORS TO THE HYOID BONE AND IS COVERED BY WHAT LYNPHATIC TISSUE
LINGUAL TONSILS
FUNCTION OF TEETH?
MASTICATION
3 PARTS OF TEETH
CROWN, NECK, ROOT
THE ROOT OF THE TOOTH IS ENCLOSED IN A THIN LAYER OF BONE-LIKE MATERIAL KNOWN AS WHAT?
CEMENTUM
WHAT SURROUNDS THE CEMENTUM?
PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT
CUNDLES OF COLLAGENOUS FIBERS THAT ATTACH TOOTH TO JAW
PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT
REGIONS OF A LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF A TOOTH
ENAMEL, DENTINE, PULP CAVITY
CONSISTS MAINLY OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN CRYSTALLINE FORM & COVERS CROWN
ENAMEL
MAKES MAJORITY OF TOOTH, HAS NO CYTOPLASMIC PROCESSES FROM CELLS IN PULP CAVITY
DENTINE
AREA OF TOOTH THAT CONTAINS BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES, AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE
PULP CAVITY
BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES ENTER A TOOTH THROUGH AN __?__
APICAL FORAMEN
TEETH FOR CRUSHING, MASHING, AND GRINDING AND HAVE 1 OR 2 ROOTS
BICUSPIDS OR PREMOLARS
TOOTH HAS 3 OR MORE ROOTS FOR CRUSHING AND GRINDING
MOLARS
TYPES OF SECRETORY CELLS
SEROUS CELLS AND MUCOUS CELLS
PRODUCE WATERY FLUID THAT CONTAINS ENZYME AND AMYLASE
SEROUS CELLS
PRODUCEL THICK, STRINGY LIQUID CALLED MUCIN
MUCOUS CELLS
LARGEST SALIVARY GLAND
PAROTID
SECRETIONS OF THE PAROTID GLAND ARE DRAINED INTO THE VESTIBULE VIA _?_
PAROTID DUCTS OR STENSEN'S DUCTS
LOCATED WITHIN MANDIBULAR GROOVE
SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND
SUBMANDIBULAR DUCTS THAT OPEN INTO MOUTH ON EITHER SIDE OF FRENULUM
WHARTON'S DUCTS
SMALLEST OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS
SUBLINGUAL
THAT OPEN ALONG EITHER SIDE OF FRENULUM
RIVINUS' DUCTS
2 SUBSTANCES IN SALIVA THAT CONTROL ORAL BACTERIA
IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND LYSOZYMES