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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Theories are vital tools for developmental researchers because they
provide organizing frameworks for our observations of people
The field of developmental science is considered to be __________ because investigators often are interested in the practical implications of their research.
applied
At birth, the brain is
nearer to its adults size than any other physical structure.
Swaddling newborns
reduces crying.
When baby Brad gazes at his mother, she smiles at him, and then Brad gazes and smiles, too. This contingent responsiveness is an example of
operant conditioning
Infants and toddlers grow
in little spurts.
The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain is called
lateralization
The _______ reflex permits feeding.
sucking
Of all motor skills, ________ may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development.
voluntary reaching
Which of the following is true about infantile amnesia?
Most older children and adults cannot retrieve events that happened before age 3.
Preterm infants
are those born several weeks or more before their due date.
Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby Luigi has begun to master
object permanence.
Which of the following is true about make-believe play?
Make-believe is a major means through which children extend their cognitive skills and learn about important activities in their culture
Human adults have especially elaborate ___________, which enable them to observe another's behavior while simulating the behavior in their own brains.
mirror neurons
Some researchers claim that infants respond in kind to others' emotions through a fairly automatic process of
emotional contagion.
Piaget believed that infants and toddlers
think" with their eyes, ears, and hands.
Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes that sensitive caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin's mother emphasizes the role of ____________ in development.
nurture
With the transition to toddlerhood, attraction to __________ declines and __________ improves.
novelty; sustained attention
Information-processing researchers focus on
many aspects of thinking, from attention, memory, and categorization skills to complex problem solving.
Core knowledge theorists assume that
nfants start out life with a set of prewired understandings
Younger students who divide information, values, and authority into right and wrong or good and bad engage in
dualistic thinking.
Fifth and sixth graders describe _________ as the most influential people in their lives.
parents
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is
industry versus inferiority.
To test for ________, Piaget asked children to arrange sticks of different lengths from shortest to longest.
seriation
School-age children use frequent _________ in their self-descriptions
social comparisons
When classmates are asked to rate each other's likeability, __________ children get many positive votes, whereas __________ children are seldom mentioned
popular; neglected
The most common psychological problem of adolescence is
depression.
Which of the following is a secondary sexual characteristic?
pubic hair
Threats to __________ health accelerate puberty, whereas threats to ___________ health delay it.
emotional; physical
According to anthropologist Margaret Mead, _____________ is/are entirely responsible for the range of teenage experiences
the social environment
Many homosexual adolescents and adults move through a three-phase sequence in coming out to themselves and others. Those three phases are
feeling different, confusion, and self-acceptance.
Although Kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development,
most people never move beyond Stage 4.
Regular physical activity is linked to
reduced incidence of cancer
Adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development
no longer require concrete things and events as objects of thought.
Which substance do American adolescents experiment with most during high school?
alcohol
Adolescents feel most comfortable with peers who
match their own level of biological maturity
On average, girls reach puberty
2 years earlier than boys.
In making decisions, adolescents, more often than adults,
fall back on well-learned intuitive judgments.
Biological aging
is under way in early adulthood.
According to Labouvie-Vief, adulthood involves moving from _______________ thought.
hypothetical to pragmatic
Lev Vygotsky's theory focuses on
how culture is transmitted to the next generation.
Emotional self-regulation refers to
the strategies children use to adjust their emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity.
In Bowlby's "clear-cut" attachment phase, babies display
separation anxiety.
Some basic emotions are happiness, fear, sadness, and
disgust.
___________ is early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation.
Temperament
The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions, is called
animistic thinking.
The practical, social side of language is called
pragmatics.
Metacognition involves
thinking about thought.
Piaget called children's self-directed utterances _________ speech, reflecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others.
egocentric
____________ refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of object remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
Conservation
With __________________, a woman is given hormones that stimulate the ripening of several ova. These are removed surgically and placed in a dish of nutrients, to which sperm are added.
in vitro fertilization
The Human Genome Project is an ambitious international research program aimed at
deciphering the chemical makeup of human genetic material.
Down syndrome most commonly results from
a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
During the decade of the twenties, there is a sharp rise in the extent to which people feel they
are personally in control of the events in their lives.
In the transformation of romantic involvements from passionate to companionate, __________ may be the aspect of love that determines whether a relationship survives.
commitment
The leading cause of unintentional injury to children in the United States is
motor vehicle accidents.
During middle childhood, child-invented games usually involve
simple physical skills and a sizable element of luck.
________ aggression in verbal and ________ forms tends to rise over early and middle childhood.
Reactive; relational
The ____________ child-rearing style is the most successful approach.
authoritative
Which of the following is true about the consequences of smoking during pregnancy?
Smoking during pregnancy can increase the likelihood of miscarriage, prematurity, asthma, infant death, and childhood cancer.