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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a cell derived from cleavage
blastomere
an embryonic structure composed of blastomeres
blastula
the opening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into mouth in protostomes and the anus in the deuterostomes
blastopore
the fluid-filled cavity that forms in the center of the embryo
blastocoel
cleavage produces _____
cells
the biphasic cell cycle only has _ (_________) and _ (_______)
S, synthesis, M, mitosis
The mitotic cycle is controlled by the accumulation of ______.
cyclin
Cyclin is a _______ _________ ______ (MPF)
mitosis promoting factor
mitotic division of the nucleus
karyokinesis
mechanism of division of the cell (cytoplasm)
cytokinesis
mechanical agent of karyokinesis
mitotic spindles with microtubules
mechanical agent of cytokinesis
contractile rings with microfilaments
4 types of holoblastic isolecithal cleavage
radial, spiral, bilateral, rotational
type of holoblastic mesolecithal cleavage
radial
2 types of meroblastic telolecithal cleavage
bilateral, discoidal
this type of cleavage is superficial and found in most insects
meroblastic centrolecithal
infolding of cell sheet into the embryo
invagination
inturning of cell sheet over the basal surface of an outer layer
involution
migration of individual cells into the embryo
ingression
splitting of migration of one sheet into two sheets
delamination
expansion of one cell sheet over other cells
epiboly
In Sea Urchin, the animal and vegetal halfs differentiate in the ___ division
4th
SUFM: ___ & ___ cells give rise to ectodermal skin and neurons
an1, an2
____ cells produce both ectodermal and edodermal organs
veg1
____ cells develop into the endoderm, the coelom, and secondary mesenchyme (pigment cells, immunocytes, and muscle cells)
veg2
SUFM: The _____ _________ give rise to the larval skeleton
large micromeres
SUFM: the _____ __________ develop into part of the coelom
small micromeres
moderate levels of _-_______ specifiy the veg2 cells to bevome the endomesoderm
β-catenin
the micromere secretes veg2 signal and the _____ activating the _____ pathway to induce cells to become secondary mesenchyme rather than the endoderm.
delta, notch
____ acts in an autocrine fasion to specify the endoderm
Wnt8
transplanted _________ can induce ectodermal cells
micromeres
______ has multiple expression domains and is expressed particularly in the middle gut
endo16
the animal-vegetal axis determines the ________-_________ axis, the other two axes are poorly understood
anterior, posterior
larval skeleton consists of _____ spicules
CaCO3
the mechanism of____________ is similar to the buckling produced by heating a bimetallic strip
invagination