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37 Cards in this Set

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Genotype
versus
Phenotype
GENOTYPE refers to a person's genetic inheritance.

PHENOTYPE refers to a person's observed characteristics which are attributable to a combination of heredity and environment
Crtical Period
A specific, predetermined period of time during biological maturation when an organism is particularly sensitive to certain stimuli that can have either a positive or negative impact on development. originally decribed by ethologists who found that an organism must be exposed to particular environmental stimuli during specific periods in order for a behavior to develop.
Sensitive Periods
Sensitive Periods are longer and more flexible than critical periods, and they are not tied as closely to chronological age or maturational stage.
Three Stages Of Prenatal Development
Germinal Stage - ocurs during the first two weeks; the fertilized ovum is called a zygote.
Embryonic Stage - encompasses the beginning of the third week through the eighth week.
Fetal Stage - begins at the onset of the ninth wek and continues until birth.
Birth Defects

Genetic Factors
Either a pair of recessive genes (sickle cell anemia, Tay-sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, and phenylketonuria PKU - lack of an enzyme needed to metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid found in milk, eggs, breaqd, and other foods - diet low in phenylalanine shortly following birth prevents sever mental retardation.) OR a chromosomal abnormality (sex-linked - Turner's, Klinefelter's, and FragileX Syndrome; or autosomal - Down Syndrome -Trisomy 21 - caused by extranumber 21 chromosome and is most common.
Down Syndrome
Characterized by mental retardation, retarded physical growth and motor development, distinctive physical chraracteristics, and increased susceptibility to Alzheimer's dementia, leukemia, and heart defects; some evidence that the risk for this defect increases as the mother's (and possibly the father's) age increases.
Birth Defects

Teratogens
substances that cross the placental barrier and cause defects in the embryo or fetus. Different organs are most susceptible to the effects of teratogens at different times, but, overall, exposure during embryonic stage is most likely to cause major structural abnormalities
Common Teratogens

Alcohol
Alcohol consuption by a woman during pregnancy can produce FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME (FAS) in her infant. Symptoms vary depending on the amount of alcohol consumed, but include facial deformities, retarded physicalgrowth, heart defects, mental retardation, hypersctivity, and irritability. Most sx are irreversible and persist into adulthood.
Common Teratogens

Cocaine
Cocaine use by a pregnant woman increases risk for sponatneous abortion and stillbirth. infants born to cocaine users are at high risk for SIDS, seizures, a low birthweight, and reducedhead circumference; often exhibit tremors, an exaggerated startle response, a high pitched cry, sleep and feeding difficulties, and developmental delays, and they tend to be irritable and difficult to comfort; cognitive and behavior problems may persist at least into early school years.
Common Teratogens

Nicotine & Lead
Smoking is associated with placental abnormalities that can cause fetal death and stillbirth. infants born to mothers who smoke are at higher risk for low birthweight, SIDS, and respiratory diseases, and may have emotional and social disturbances and cognitive deficits.
Exposure to lead during prenatal development is associated with low birthweight and mental retardation.
Maternal Health & Impact on Developing Embryo and Fetus

Rubella
The infant is at high risk for heart defects, blindness, deafness, and mental retardation, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy
Maternal Health & Impact on Developing Embryo and Fetus

HIV/AIDS
Risk of transmission from mother to infant estimated between 35-65% but significantly reduced when the antiviral agent AZT is administered to mother during pregnancy and delivery. Babies with HIV frequently small for gestational age, and most show multiple signs of the virus during the first year of life (e.g., greater susceptibility to infections, enlarged liver and spleen, swollen lymph nodes, and oral candidiasis). During early childhood, immunologic abnormalities and delays in physical and cognitive development. 1/3 of infants treated with AZT survive to about age 8 or beyond.
Maternal Health & Impact on Developing Embryo and Fetus

Malnutrition
Miscarriage, stillbirth, and low birth weight, mental retardation and other serious problems associated malutrition during prenatal development. Severe malnutrition in third trimester (especially protein deficiency) detrimental for brain development and can lead reduced # of neurons, reduced myelinization, and neurotransmitter abnormalities.
Maternal Health & Impact on Developing Embryo and Fetus

Stress
A woman experiencing sever or prolonged emotional stress is at higher risk for miscarriage, painful labor, and premature delivery, and her baby is more likely to have a low bith weight, to be hyperactive and irritable, and to exhibit irregular feeding, sleeping, and bowel habits. Adequate social and personal support prior to and during her pregnancy may reduce the effects of stress.
Complications During Birth
Prolonged ANOXIA (oxygen shortage) can be caused by factors including a twisted umbilical cord od sedatives given to the mother; and its potential consquences include delayed motor and cognitive development, mental retardation, and, in severe cases, cerebral palsy. When infant exposed to herpes simplex 2 during birth, high risk for death, brain damage, or blindness; cesarian section is common practice.
Premature and Small-for-Gestational Age Infants
Prior to 37 wks considered premature; and likned to low SES, teen mothers, malnutrition, and drug use; majority survive, especially if at least 1500g (3.3lbs). With proper tx and support catch up with peers by 2 or 3. Greatest increase in premature births btwn '89 & '90 among non-Hispanic whites. Below 10th percentile for gestational age considered small-for-gestational age (SGA); consequences more serious than premature. SGA infants developed at less-than-normal rate, thus, are at high rrisk for asphyxia during birth, repiratory disease, hypoglycemia, and other problems.
Risks

RUTTER'S INDICATORS
The greater the # of risk factors a baby exposed to, the greaterrisk for negative outcomes. Accurate predictors for child psychopathology are: sever marital discors, low SES, overcrowding or large family size, parental criminality, maternal psychopathology, and placement of child outside the home.
Resilience
Positive outcomes for high-risk babies are more likely when they (1) experience fewer stressors following birth (e.g., more negative effects are associated with chronic poverty, family instability, and maternal health problems); (2) have an easy temperment marked by a high degree of social responsivity, good communication skills, and consistent eating and sleeping patterns; and (3) are provided with stable support from a parent or substitute caregiver. Findings suggest high-risk children demonstrate RESILIENCE and that the negative effects of prenatal and perinatal stress are not always irreversible.
Physical Development

Techniques used to Study Perception in the Newborn
High amplitude sucking is especially useful for studying the perceptual abilitites of infants aged 1 to 4 months; reaching is used with infants aged 12 wks or older; and head turning is a measure for those aged 5.5 to 12 mos. heart rate is considered useful across a wide range of ages.
Physical Development

Vision
Least well developed at birth. At birth the newborn sees at 20 ft what normal adults see at about 200 to 400 ft; by 6 mos, visual acuity very close to adult's. Evidence of limited color vision by 2 mos and some degree of depth perception bt 4-6 m0s. 2-5 days after birth, newborn shows preference for human faces over other objects; and bt 1 mo. can discriminate mother's face from a stranger's.
Physical Development
Perception in the Newborn
Audition -
AUDITORY LOCALIZATION
Fetus hears sounds in the uterus during last months of development and newborns are only slightly less sensitive to sound intensity than adults. AUDITORY LOCALIZATION (ability tooreint toward the direction of a sound) is evident shortly after birth, disappears between 2 & 4 mos, and reappears and improves during 1st yr. by 3 mos distiguishes btwn voices but also prefers sound of mother's voice. Sensitive to speech sounds and a few adys after birth can distinguish between vowels "a" aqnd "i" and by 2 or 3 mos, btwn similar consonant sounds.
Physical Development
Perception in the Newborn
Taste & Smell
Newborns are responsive to different tastes and odors. Within hours after birth, their facial expressions show that they can differentiate btwn sweet and nonsweet tastes, and they have a definite preference for sweet liquids.
Physical Development
Reflexes in the Newborn
EARLY REFLEXES - Major Reflexes of the Newborn
Babinski - Toes fan out and upward when soles of the feet are tickled.
Rooting - Turns head in the direction of touch applied to cheek.
Moro (Startle) - Flings arems and legs outward and then toward the body in response to a loud noise or sudden loss of physical support.
Stepping (Walking) - Makes coordinated walking movements when held upright with feet touching flat surface.
Physical Development

The Nervous System
Brain development rapid during prenatal period but only 25% of its adult weight; grows quickly after birth, and is 80% of adult weight by age 2; due less to addition of new neurons and more to increase in their size and their interconnections and to formation of glial cells, responsible for myelinization of the nerve fibers. Brain continues to grow thru childood and adolescence and by 16 at full adult weight.
Physical Development

Cerebral Cortex
Responsible for higher-level cognitive functions, language, spatial akills, and complex motor activities; but is almost completely undeveloped at birth. 1st few mos of life, primary motor and sesory motor areas of cortex develop substatially, while frontal cortes continues to mature thru childhood and adolescence. Cortical development reflects the Cephalocaudal (head to tail) and proximodistal (center to extremities) that charaterizes all physical growth: areas of the cortex that control movement of head and trunk develop before areas that govern movement of limbs.
Physical Development

Cerebral Cortex
By age 30, brain starts to gradually shrink (loss of neurons), and this brain atrohy accelerates after age 60. Loss of neurons evident in certain areas including cortex, hippocampus, and locus ceruleus. Other changes in aging brain include development of senile placques, enlargement of ventricles, reduced blood flow to the brain, and a decrease in level of some neurotransmitters. Brain, however, attempts to compensate for neuronal loss by developing new connections btwn remaining neurons; and recent evidence that new brain cells develop - at least in the hippocampus - during adult yrs.
Physical Development

Physical Maturation
Developmental Milestones
1-3 Mos - able to raise chin from ground and turn head from side-to-side; by 3rd mo. can play with hands and fingers and brings objects in hand to mouth.
4-6 mos - By 4 mos, rolls from abdomen to back; at 6 mos, sits on lap and reaches and grasps; at 6 mos, sits alone and stands w/ help; 1st teeth appear appear at 5 to 9 mos.
7-9 mos - shows increasingly good coordination; at 8-9 mos, sits alone w/o support and begins crawling and creeping; at 9-10 mos, pulls self to standing by holding furniture.
Physical Development

Physical Maturation
Developmental Milestones
10-12 mos - At 10-11 mos, stands alone and walks with help; at about 12 mos, takes firts steps alone.
13-15 mos. - by 13-14 mos, walks alone with a wide-based gait; by 15 mos, creeps up stairs, scibbles spontaneously and uses cup well.
16-24 mos - by 18 mos, runs clumsily, walks up stairs with hand held and can use spoon; by 24 mos, goes up and down stairs alone, kicks ball, turns pages of book, and 50% of children use toilet durin g the day.
25-48 mos - at 30 m0s, jumps with both fet and had good finger-hand coordination; by 36 mos reides tricycle, dressed and undresses with simple clothes and is toilet trained; by 48 mos. exhibits a stable preference for rt. or lf. hand.
Physical Development

The Effects of Early Training
While early training can accelerate the age babies first exhibit certain basic motor skills, these effects do not generalize to other skills. However, early training in complex skills does appear to improve individual proficiency with regard to those skills later in life.
Physical Development

Gender Difference in
Motor Development
Becomes apparent in midle childhood - girls more physically mature and superior in skills requiring flexibility, agility, and balance, while boys are supeior in physical skills that require strength and gross-motor abilities. gender disparity increases in early adolescence: boys excelling on most measures of motor ability. Experts sttribute disparity to differences in ADIPOSE (fatty) tissue. Correlation btwn proportion of adipose tissue and motor performance for both genders; with increasing maturity, girls develop higher proportion of fat related to fat-free mass, while the opposite is true for boys.
Physical Development

Physical Maturation
in Adolescence
Adolescent growth spurts begins at about age 11 to 12 for girls and 13 to 14 for boys. This period of rapid growth last for 3-4 years, with girls reaching close to full stature by age 15 and boys by age 17. Growth spurt signals the beginning of puberty, during which primary sex organs enlarge and become functionally mature and the secondary sex characteristics appear.
Physical Development

Physical Maturation
in Adolescence - Research
Research comparing the effects of early, late, and on-time PHYSICAL MATURATION IN ADOLESCENTS suggests that for boys, early maturation has a # of benefits including better adjustment, greater popularity with peers, and superior athletic skill. While late-maturing boys are more "childish," exhibit more attention-seeking behaviors and have less confidence. For girls, early maturation is more likely to have negative consequences, especially during adolescent trs: early maturing girls tend to have a poor self-concept, dissatisfied withbther physical development, have lower academic achievement, and engage in sexually precocious behavior and drug and alcohol use. Late-maturing girls also suffer because they are treated like "little girls," and they tend to be dissatified with their appearance. By adulthood, early, late or on-time maturation faily indistinguishable.
Physical Development

Chronic Illness
31% of children have chronic health problems; most common being respiratory allergies, recurrent ear infections, and asthma. Psychological adjustment found they are at higher risk for both internalizing and externalizing sx, but most do not actually meet criteria for formal DSM-IV dx. Positive adj predicted by seriousness of illness, higher SES, two-parent family, little visible disfiguation, heathy parental sdj. Children with cancer and other life-threatening illnesses have better psycological outcomeswhen give accurate and developmentally-appropriate info about their illness in iys early stages. Studies on adherence to medical regimens for diabetes millitus and other chronic illnesses indicate adolescents is high risk period for no-compliance.
Physical Development

Adolescent Drug Use
Illicit drug use peaked in '79, decreased until '91, increased somewhat from '92 thru '96, and then declined slightly from '97 to '98. Studies have found that alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana most commonly used. In a '99 study 21% aged 12-17 said they consumed at least 1 alcoholic beverage in the past mont, 18.2% said they had smoked cigarettes, and 8.3% said they used marijuana or hashish.
Physical Development

Physical Changes In Old Age
VISION
Aging accompanied by a number of changes in sensory and psychomotor functioning, degeree of change varies from person to person.
Vision: after 65 most experience VISUAL Changes that interfere with reading, driving and other aspects of daily life. Presbyopia (loss of near vision), viual acuity, reduced perception of depth and color, increased light sensitivity, and deficits in visual search, dynamic vision (perceiving the details of moving objects(, and speed in processing what is seen.
Physical Development

Physical Changes In Old Age
Hearing
Prior to age 75, the majority of adults do not experience significant hearing loss but among those between 75 and 79, 50% or more have hearing deficits that interfere with daily functioning. Biggest problem is decreasing ability to perceive high frequency sounds, which makes it difficult to understand human speech, espcially when there is a competing noise.
Physical Development

Physical Changes In Old Age
Strength, Coordination, and Reaction Time
Aging associated with declines in strength and enduramce , less sfficient sensorimotor control, and increased reaction time. Normal aging is accompanied with behavioral slowing. Speed of behavior may prove to be a criterion for assessing the impact of interventions on the rate and process of aging.