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37 Cards in this Set

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the unlawful killing of one human by another & death must occur w/in a year and a day of the injury
homicide
requires premeditation and malice aforethought
1st degree murder
the prior formation of the intent to kill
premeditation
the manifestation of the deliberate intention to take the life of a fellow creature
malice aforethought
includes malice aforethought but not premeditation
2nd degree murder
does not require malice aforethought
manslaughter
death occurs when it could have reasonably been anticipated
voluntary manslaughter or 1st degree
when the circumstances are not so closely related to a lethal outcome; ex – someone dies after a fall that happened during a fight
involuntary manslaughter or 2nd degree
often used to prosecute traffic fatalities
negligent manslaughter
where death occurs because of an accident
excusable homicide
relates to an act that is demanded by the legal system; ex - police officers or executioners
justifiable homicide
a threat or attempt to do bodily harm to another person
assault
the actual act of violent harm
battery
taking of property from a person w/o their consent & w/the intent to deprive them permanently of the property
larceny
petty larceny
misdemeanor
grand larceny
felony
a form of theft where something is taken from a person through the use of violence or fear
robbery
a crime against a dwelling; one who breaks in w/intent to commit a felony
burglary
average loss of burglary
1,200
rape: age & city size
20-24
does NOT vary w/city size
homicide offenders: African American
75%
homicide offenders: male
82%
homicide patterns: day & time
Sautrday; b/w 8PM & 2AM
homicide & alcohol present
2/3; ½ time in both victim & offender
homicide offenders w/a previous arrest
64%
% arrested for burglary are male
90%
burlgary rates dropped (since 1980)
44%

Robbery rates have ↑ as burglary rates have ↓… perhaps b/c of crack
% shrinkage that is shoplifting
80%
homicide b/w acquaintances
2/3
% of female victims w/attackers who were friends/relatives/acquaintances
84%
% homicide intra-racial
94%
victim-precipitated homicides in Philadelphia
26%
Fisher rape study:
- assailants know to victims
- forced sex in past 7 months
9 out of 10
over 1/4
rape may happen in part because of a survival drive to procreate; so while it is an inexcusable act it is a natural biological phenomenon
Thornhill & Palmer
men evolve traits to increase their chances of fathering many children, and rape is a by-product of that
Ellis
Evolutionary theory of rape
% homicides occur during a robbery
10%
robberies that end in murder
1 in 300