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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Much of what we know about crime is shaped by a typical, sensational incident because our perception of criminals are based largely on:
Media portrayals
A person is _______ times more likely to die of a heart attack than to die as a homicide victim.
President __________ called the first national commission on crime.
The legislative decision to change a crime into a non-criminal act is referred to as
Prostitution is an example of what type of crime?
A victimless crime.
Violent crime has _________ in the 1990¿s, but a national poll shows the American public believes crime is on the ___________.
decreased; increase
The criminal justice system can be described as a system because:
Anything done by one criminal justice agency affects other parts of the system.
The due process clause appears in which of the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution?
What is it called when a person or group is unfairly blamed and punished for crimes?
Emile Durkheim, writing in 1895, observed that crime is present not only in the majority of societies of one particular species but in all societies of all types. He pointed out that there is no society that is not confronted with the problem of criminality. This concept is known as:
The universality of crime.
The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution banned the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. This amendment was enforced by the ___________ Act.
The first police appeared in the United States in the period before the Civil War. These first police were created to bring order to the increasingly disorderly cities.
Laws that punish actions that violate the common good are called _________ laws.
Social expectations about what constitutes appropriate behavior is called a:
Rudeness is an example of a:
Deviant act.
Sanction can be used as a synonym for:
Acts considered wrong by the very nature of the act are called ___________ offenses.
mala in se
Acts considered undesirable, such as adultery and fornication are categorized as ____________ offenses.
Crimes that are considered a threat to the government are ___________ crimes.
Regulatory offenses are usually activities of a ____________ that threatens health, safety, or welfare.
The __________ view of crime sees crime as a moral failure in decision making.
Cesare Beccaria is associated with the __________ school of criminology.
A more scientific study of the causes of crime followed the classical school of criminology. It is known as the ___________ school of criminology.
The individual who is often cited as the first positivist and incorrectly referred to by some as the father of criminology is ____________.
Cesare Lombroso
In the conflict view of crime:
The criminal is a reflection of the will of those in power that criminalizes behavior that threatens the interests of the powerful.
Question 14 text An example of learning theory use to explain criminal behavior was the work of Edwin Sutherland. His theory is known as ___________________.
Differential association.
The idea that crime can be deterred by punishment is associated with which of the following theories?
Classical Criminology.
More equitable distribution of power and wealth in society, so that all individuals have greater stake in a better society is associated with which of the explanations?
Who developed the idea of atavism that suggested that "born criminals" were biological throwbacks to an earlier stage of human evolution?
Cesare Lombroso
Routine activities theory is presented by _________.
Marcus Felson
Labeling theory depends less on the behavior of the delinquent than:
How others respond to the delinquent act.
The theory developed by Walter White that suggests that career criminals are irresponsible, self-indulgent, and rule breaking in almost every area of their lives is called:
Cognitive theory.
The most common explanations of crime are:
Sociological explanations.
____________ explanations of crime look at environmental influences that affect the way people behave.
A prescribed remedy for crime that suggests prevention, and education on how to avoid becoming a victim is associated with:
Rational choice theory.
Question 24 text An explanation of crime that suggests that crime results from the lack of access to legitimate means of achieving goals is called:
Blocked opportunity theory.
Question 25 text Criminal _____________ lead to different forms of deviance that result when youths cease to adhere to middle-class standards.
Freda Adler, in her 1975 book, Sisters in Crime, argued that women would have higher rates of crime:
If women had the same opportunities in business, education, and government
Question 28 text A police crackdown of a specific geographic area to make drug arrests is called a:
Police sweep.
ADAM is a program in thirty-five cities that:
Measures the per cent of arrestees who test positive for drugs in the thirty-five cities.
Crime of violence make up les than ______% of all crimes as measured by the FBI¿s Uniform Crime Report
Murder and manslaughter are both
Criminal homicides.
What is the difference between murder and manslaughter?
Manslaughter is a mitigated murder. It involves causing death recklessly, or intentionally under extenuating circumstances.
What is the leading cause of criminal homicides?
Killings from arguments, romantic triangles, and drug-or alcohol-influenced brawls
The difference between assault and aggravated assault is:
The mental state of the offender.
The difference between robbery and theft:
Is that robbery is a theft from the person by force or intimidation.
Which crime is the most commonly committed crime?
Which of the following crimes in not one of the index crimes in the Uniform Crime Reports?
What is the primary flaw in the accuracy of the FBI¿s Uniform Crime Reports?
Many crimes go unreported to the police.
In addition to a measurement of crime, the UCR also provides a measurement of ___________ by police.
The crime rate is a measurement of the relationship of crime to ___________.
How do you explain a situation where the number of robberies increase but the robbery rate decreases?
The increase in the population is greater than the increase in the number of robberies.
Which of the following is the oldest measurement of crime in the United Sates?
Question 22 text Which of the following is not an explanation of the difference between the Uniform Crime Reports and the National Crime Victimization Survey?
he UCR and the NCVS are both considered official measurements of crime in the United States.
The National Incident Based Reporting System will expand the number of criminal incidents, as well as more complete information, on the __________ incidents measured as opposed to the eight measured in the Uniform Crime Reports.
What is a self report study?
A self report study is a measurement of crime from interviews with victims of crime.
The younger the person, the _________ the likelihood of becoming a victim of a violent crime.
The risk of criminal victimization drops after the age of:
What is the crime for which women are most likely to be arrested?
The income group most like to be the victim of a burglary is the group whose income is:
Question 11 answers
Less than $15,000
Which group have the highest per capita rate of violence of any ethnic group.
Native Americans
Which group have the lowest victimization rates.
Asian Americans
Which of the following groups has the highest arrest rate?
White Americans
Men are ________ likely to be the offender in crimes of violence between partners and women are _________ likely to be victims of these crimes.
most; least
Question 4 text Women are equally likely to be the victim of a __________ crime as men.
Courts of general jurisdiction are also known as ___________ courts.
What is meant when the author of the text refers to the criminal justice system as a filter?
The criminal justice system is a filter that screens out weak cases and filters through serious cases for disposition.
he Fourth Amendment provides protection from:
Unreasonable search and seizure.
The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution stated that no state shall deprive a person of ____________.
due process of law
In order to obtain a warrant you need:
Probable Cause
A _________ is a written notice to appear in court.
What is a booking?
Booking is the official record of an arrest.
A __________ is bail posted by a bondsman on behalf of an arrestee.
The defendant is asked to make a plea at the:
Bail is first set at the:
Initial appearance
According to the Fifth Amendment, all infamous crimes must be presented to:
The grand jury
A trial before a judge is called a __________ trial.
___________ is another term used for a verdict of not guilty.
Probation is a ________ while parole is a conditional release from prison.
Once convicted an offender can __________ a case to a higher court.
Prior to sentencing a presentence report provides information for the judge in the sentencing decision. The presentence report is completed by:
The probation officer
Which amendment to the constitution prohibits a defendant from being tried twice for the same crime?
Which of the following has been given as a reason for unfairness in the American justice system.
Fundamental safeguards such as probable cause and proof of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt are inadequate safeguards.