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146 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"RESIGNED SEGMENT"
kids in denmark swede, korea and other countries that have low expectations of the future and of material success, alienated from society.
"BOOTSTRAPPERS"
nigeria, mexico, US and india family oriented, achievemen seekers with hopes and dreams for the future.
"UPHOLDERS"
vietnam and indonesia, taiwan, and other nations are dutiful and conformning, seeking a rewarding family life and upholding traditions.
"QUIET ACHIEVERS"
CONFORM TO SOCIETAL NORMS AND ARE AMBITIOUS FOR SUCCESS
"THRILLS AND CHILLS"
teens in the US Germany, England and other European countries, fun seeking free spending consumers from mainly middle class or upper class backgrounds.
"WORLD SAVERS"
hungary, phillipines, venezualea and several other countries are characterized by good grades, altruism, and high career aspiractions
Generation Y
1979-1994 a media and tech savvy group, use high tech products to communicate, play games, do homework and shop. Approx 4 million turn 21 every year, around the world,teens tast eis very similar
Brand Loyalty Y
website for teens mad eby MAcys to make them think od Macys as a destination and then as they grow up as for their homes,their children and themselves
positioning Y
in japan they use high school girls because they have an uncanny ability to predict which products will be hits, fads catch on with teen snad then the general consumer
effective advertising Y
incorportes symbols, ussues and langauge to which the target group can realte. messages need to talk to teens not at them. use alternative music, sports figures, short snappy phrases not long wined
Generation X
born from 1965 to 1976 members are building careers, having families and buying homes. however fewer of them own their own homes today. alot of them return home to live after college or to save money not moving out into their 30s "boomerang kids" they influence family decisions, feel less pressure to settle down than earlier generations. they take tim eot reserch a purchase and likes to customize offerrings to their personal needs and taste. Key segment for music, mocies, budger tracel beer and alcohol, also important targets for markeers of PCs DVDs and other tech like things
Advertising X
born with TV, cynical about obvious marketing techniques react positively to messages they see as clever or in tube with their values, attitudes and interests
Media X
can be rached through popular radio statoins, and network cable TV and magazines
Baby Boomers
1946- 1964 make up the largest demographic group in the US, they have considerable buying power and are an influential segment Value individualism, wan the freedom to do what they want when and where they want, they tend to watch more TV as they get older nd spend more time browsing the internet than others..
Different Subgroups of Baby boomers
three subsegments: leading boomers, core boomers, and trailing boomers or Gappers 63-69,
Gray Market
consumers over 65, women outnumber men. less likely to search for information and more liekly to have difficulty remembering and making more complex deciions. susceptible to the truth effect
Market of Aging Pop
seniors represent a growing pop for health related and medial rpoducts and servieces and retirement communities. products for those whoare senstitive to aging as well
how seniors/grays can be targeted
through programs like CNN and preium pay cable and oldies rock and roll stuff
ethnic groups
share a common heritage, set of belieds religion and experienceds that set them apart from others in society inc. hispanic, african american, adian, ilalia irish jewish polish
acculturation
move to differt culture, experiencing itm and learning it
enculturation
learning your own culture
multicultural marketing
the use of strategies that appeal to a variety of cultures at the same time
groups that the spanish can be divided into
1) acculturated , those who speak mostly english, high assimilation
2)bicultural who can function in either english or spanish
3)traditional who speak mostly spanish
intensity of ethnic identification
how strongly people identify with their ethnic group
those who strongly identify with their ethnic group and are less acculturated into the mainstream culture are more likely to exhibit the consumption patterns of the ethnic groups
Strong identification leads to a higher level of husband dominated decisions, more likely to be influenced by radio ads, billboards, damily and coworkers, less likely to use coupons
Product Development Hispanic
they are using makeup companies that have developed makeup for darket skin
Advertising Messages Hispanic
react positively to ads using ethic spokespeople who are perceived are more trustworthy, cant just translate a message doesnt always work out
accomodation theory
the more effort that one puts forth in trying to communicate with an ethnic group, the more positive the reaction
African Americans
watch more TC and have more positive attituses toward ads than Anglos
have a llot of influene on whats cool in the market
Asian Americans
third largest and fastest growing major subculture in the US, more diverse than the Spanish culture, more people from differnet cultures
-strong emphasis on family, tradition and cooperation
-shop a lot check prices online mre than other consumers
-median income is higher than US median
-models are overrepresented
Ethnic Groups around the world
french canadians, more stables for scratch cooking , more soft drinks, bere and wine, less frozenveggie, strong patriotism
social class hierarchy
higher classes of some people than to others, members of a particular social class tend to share similar values and behavior patterns, it helps people determine what their role in society is or what they would liek it ot be
lower class
most likely to be culture bound tend to be the most different from other classes in terms of lifestyle, dress and eating behaviors
upper class
similar to each other then they are to other classes withn thei rown countires, they tend to be more cosmopolitan and international in orientation
middle class
borrow from other cultures showing a means of achieving social mobility
overprivileged
families with an income higher tahn the average in their class
class average
families with an average income in a particular class
underprivileged
families iwht an income lower than the average in their class
trickle down effect
when lower classes copy the trends that begin in the upper class
middle class looks dor guidance on what is cultural in music art and literature
status float
when treds start in the lower and middle classes and then spread up: tatoos, jeans
income v social class
income level s can overlap social classes at the middle and lower classes but that doesnt mean that they have higher social standing , income also increases more with age but older workers dont necessarily have a higher social status.
income is a better predictor of consumer behavior
occupation and education
the greatest determinant of socail class is occupation and some of them require higher education
engineers ahve a higher status in developing countries than in developed
inherited status
atopted from parents at birth
earned status
acquire later in life drom personal achievements
Social class indexes
Indec of status characteristics and index od ssocial position are criticized as out of date
CSI-consumerized status index
assesses consumers education occupation area od residence and income. CSi is easy fo rinterviewers to administer and for consumers to answer
social class hierarchy
higher classes of some people than to others, members of a particular social class tend to share similar values and behavior patterns, it helps people determine what their role in society is or what they would liek it ot be
lower class
most likely to be culture bound tend to be the most different from other classes in terms of lifestyle, dress and eating behaviors
upper class
similar to each other then they are to other classes withn thei rown countires, they tend to be more cosmopolitan and international in orientation
middle class
borrow from other cultures showing a means of achieving social mobility
overprivileged
families with an income higher tahn the average in their class
class average
families with an average income in a particular class
underprivileged
families iwht an income lower than the average in their class
trickle down effect
when lower classes copy the trends that begin in the upper class
middle class looks dor guidance on what is cultural in music art and literature
status float
when treds start in the lower and middle classes and then spread up: tatoos, jeans
income v social class
income level s can overlap social classes at the middle and lower classes but that doesnt mean that they have higher social standing , income also increases more with age but older workers dont necessarily have a higher social status.
income is a better predictor of consumer behavior
occupation and education
the greatest determinant of socail class is occupation and some of them require higher education
engineers ahve a higher status in developing countries than in developed
inherited status
atopted from parents at birth
earned status
acquire later in life drom personal achievements
Social class indexes
Indec of status characteristics and index od ssocial position are criticized as out of date
CSI-consumerized status index
assesses consumers education occupation area od residence and income. CSi is easy fo rinterviewers to administer and for consumers to answer
Gray Market
consumers over 65, women outnumber men. less likely to search for information and more liekly to have difficulty remembering and making more complex deciions. susceptible to the truth effect
Market of Aging Population
seniors represent a growing pop for health related and medial rpoducts and servieces and retirement communities. products for those whoare senstitive to aging as well
how seniors/grays can be targeted
through programs like CNN and preium pay cable and oldies rock and roll stuff
ethnic groups
share a common heritage, set of belieds religion and experienceds that set them apart from others in society inc. hispanic, african american, adian, ilalia irish jewish polish
acculturation
move to differt culture, experiencing itm and learning it
enculturation
learning your own culture
multicultural marketing
the use of strategies that appeal to a variety of cultures at the same time
groups that the spanish can be divided into
1) acculturated , those who speak mostly english, high assimilation
2)bicultural who can function in either english or spanish
3)traditional who speak mostly spanish
intensity of ethnic identification
how strongly people identify with their ethnic group
those who strongly identify with their ethnic group and are less acculturated into the mainstream culture are more likely to exhibit the consumption patterns of the ethnic groups
Strong identification leads to a higher level of husband dominated decisions, more likely to be influenced by radio ads, billboards, damily and coworkers, less likely to use coupons
Product Development Hispanic
they are using makeup companies that have developed makeup for darket skin
Advertising Messages Hispanic
react positively to ads using ethic spokespeople who are perceived are more trustworthy, cant just translate a message doesnt always work out
accomodation theory
the more effort that one puts forth in trying to communicate with an ethnic group, the more positive the reaction
African Americans
watch more TC and have more positive attituses toward ads than Anglos
have a llot of influene on whats cool in the market
Asian Americans
third largest and fastest growing major subculture in the US, more diverse than the Spanish culture, more people from differnet cultures
-strong emphasis on family, tradition and cooperation
-shop a lot check prices online mre than other consumers
-median income is higher than US median
-models are overrepresented
Ethnic Groups around the world
french canadians, more stables for scratch cooking , more soft drinks, bere and wine, less frozenveggie, strong patriotism
underprivilged
have incomes below the median
trickle down effect
when trends go down to the lower classes from upper
status float
when trends go up from lower class to upper.. blue jeans, tatoo
income v social class
more money doesnt mean higher social class, overlapping amounts of money in social classes, but lower class people who earn less arent seen as higher, incom eincreases with age, but doesnt mean that class is higher-income is a better indicator of consumer behavior, social class is a better predictor of consumption
occupation and education
the greatest determinant of education is occupation which often requires more education
inherited status
you get it from your paretns at birth
earned status
acquired later in life from personal achievements
Computerized status index
uses consumer education, occupation, area od residence and income to determince social class
status crystallization
when consumers are consistant across the various dimensions social class is easy to determine
upward mobility,
the ability to move up in class
upper class
varied group of individuals who incluse the aristocracy, the new social elite(nouveaux riche) and the upper middle class( professionals)
-many are price conscious, and more likely tha other classes to carefull research their purchases-nouveaux riche are upper class consumers who have acquired a great deal of status and wealth in their own lifetimes they collect items that are symbolic of acquired wealth and power(furniture, cars,)
middle class
primarily white collar workers many who have attended college but have not completed, values and consumption patterns vary but man y look to the upper class for proper dining etiquette, but they also have lower class tendencies, premium cable
working class
blue collar workers, traditional stereotype of hard hatted middlemen, heavily depend on family memeberasfor economic and social supprt , more of a local orientatio socially psychologically and geographically than other classes, local athletic teams, etc.
-likely to spend mroe than save, when they ave tthey use bank accounts instead of investments, judge product quality based on price, higher price, better qulity
homeless
consumers who lack shelter and live on the streets or in makeshift structures, cars or vacant homes
-they are growing,
-mad eup of alcohol and drug users, members of female headed householdsa, etc
-struggle for survival, scavenging
marketing implications-social class
different products for different calasses: Annheiser busch, michelob for upper, budweiser, for middl and busch for loweer
-upper class themes: you've made it, just reward for your hard work
-messages for lower class-more localized orientation focusing on home , friends and favored activities
-try to reach upper class through magazines (Robb Report, town and country, new york times), public tv
-middle: heavy tv and magazine
-lower: heavy tv less likely to read
nuclear family
father mother and children
extended family
nuclear family plus relatives (grandparents, aunts uncles and cousins)
household
broad term including a single person living alone or a group of individuals who live together in a common place whether or not they're related
family life cycle
differnet stages of fmaily life depending on the age of the parentsand how many children are living at home
main factors altering the basic household structure
-delayed marriage: men at 27, women at 25
-cohabitation: living together outside marriage
-dual careers: women concerned aobur career advancement or woman works just to get money
-divorce-more common
-smaller families
household decision roles
roles that different household members play in a household decision
household member types
gatekeeper: household members who collect and control info important to the decision
influencer: household members who try to express their opinions and influence the decision
decider: the person who determines which product or service will be chosen
buyer: the member who gets the prduct or service
user: the members who use the product
instrumental
relate to tasks affecting the buying choice such as when and how much to purchase
expressive
roles that involve indication of family norms
conflicts and when they occur in household roles
-reasons for buying
-who should make the decision
-which option to choose
-who gets to use the product or service
Roles of spouses
husband dominant decision- made primally by the male head of household
wife dominant decision-made primarily by the female head of household
autonomic decision-equally likely to be made by the husband or wife or both (mens clothes, oys, games_
syncratic decision-made jointly by the husband and wife (vacations, fridges)
bargaining
fair exchange
concession
spouse gives in on some points to get what he or she wants in other areas
syncratic decision
made jointly by husband and wife
autonomic decision
equally liekly to be made by the husband or the wife
household types that determine the nature of childrens influences
authoritarian househols-stress obedience
neglectful -exert little control (children more control)
democratic-encourage self expressoin
permissive- remove constraints (children more control)
psychographics
description of consumers based on their psychological and behavioral characteristics
values
beliefs that a given behavior or outcome is desireable or good
value system
total set of values and their relative importance
global values
represent the core of an individuals value system
terminal values
highly desired end states. equality and salvation
instrumental values
those needed to acheve these desired end states
loving forgiving, helpfullness. they help achieve terminal values
domain specific values
relevant only to particular areas of activity such as religion family or consumption
materialism
satisfaction is guaged on on terms of what htey have acquired in life
hedonism
pleasure seeking, things that make people feel good , luxury cars, home entertainment
means end chain analysis
helps unerstand how values link to attributes in products and services like liking ligh tbeer because it has less calories , dont want to gain weight, want to be healthy
lifestyles
manifestations or actual patterns of behavior
VALS
valeus and lifestyle survey. it analyzes the behavior of US consumers to create segments based on two factors, resources (income educations, health, eagerness to buy, and primary motivation either guided by individual aspects or by others opinions
aspirational reference group
groups we admire and wish to be life but are not currently a member of. ec. younger brother wants to be like older brother
associative reference group
groups to whih we actually belong such as a clique of friends, an extended family
dissociativce reference groups
groups whose attitudes values, behaviorswe disapprove of and do not wish to emulate. ex. KKK
brand community
a soecialized group of consumer with a structured set of relationships incolving a particlar brand fellow customers of that brand and the product in use
primary reference group
a group with which we have face to face interaction such as family, peers, and professors
secondary reference group
one tha tmay influence us even though we have no direct contact with its members internet chat group or musical fan club. even though impersonal it can still influence our behavior
homophily
the similarity among members of a group
tie strength: strong weak
strong tie- two people are connected by a close intimate relationship, often characterized bt frequent inerpersonal contact
-weak tie relatoinship people have a more distant nonintimate relationshop with limited interpersonal contact
what influences how quickly information is transmitted amoung consumers within a group?
homophily, degree of contact and network density
norms
societies collective decisions about what behavior should be
brand choice congruence
the likelihoos that consumers will but what others in their group buy
conformity
the tendency for an indivual to behave as the group behaves
complaince
different eddect of notmatice influcence means doing what someone asks us to do
reactance
doing the opposite of what the individual or group wants us to do
what are the two types of decisions researchers have hypothesized reference groups influence
1-whether we buy a product within a given category
2-what brand we buy
reference groups are they likely to influence on whether we buy luxury items?
they may exert some influence n wherther we buy a luxury item-friends with iPod or Dvd player, but not necessarily necessities
products consumed in public that give others the opportunity to observe which brad we have purchased prediction
cars are publicly consumed items so people see what we but, but people dont necessarily see what mattress we buy because it is consumed in private. hard for groups o develop norms when a good is consumed in private,
informational influence
the extent to which sources influence consumers simply by providing information
innovation
an offering thats new to the marketplace
continuous innovation
there is no behavior change only product change, limited effect on existing consumption patterns used in much the same way as products before it
dynamically continuous innovation
pronounced effect on consumption practices, often inovations incorporate a new technology. somewhat of a behavioral change
discontinuous innovation
a product so new that we have never known anything like it before airplanes and internet serivce providers at one time discontinuous innovations. basically it is new to the world
diffusion
the percentage of the population that has adopted an innovation at a specific point in time
s shaped dffusion curve
adoption of the products begis relatively slowly and after a period the rate of adoption increases dramatically with many people adoping and then many many more poeople and then it increases at a decreasing rate
-innovation is associated wiht some risk, diffusion may be slow initially because consumers arent sure if the product will be in the market for a long period of time (computers and CD players)
exponential diffusion curve
starts out quick and then increases at a slower rate
cultural categories
the natural grouping of objects that reflect our culture. time, space, occasions
cultural principles
ideas or values that specify how aspects of our culture are organized and/or how they should be perceived or evaluated
emblematic function
use of products to symbolize membership in social groups
women-dresses