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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Group think (irving janis)
cohesiveness is important--> but too much cohesiveness will lead to a diminishing of the quality
-inadequate analysis of problem
-limited range of solutions
-lack of rigor in assessing consequences of a preferred solution
-failure to reconsider initially rejected solutions
- inadequate research
-biased processing
lack on contigency plans
Factors that lead to Groupthink 1
Excessive level of cohesiveness
---hesitant to criticize weak ideas
---dont want to hurt others feelings
---allows group to make stupid and sometimes dangerous decisions
Factor that leads to Groupthink 2
Group Stucture
---group isolated from information of not being exposed to differing points of view or opinions
---biased authoritartian leader
----group does not have established procedure for making decisions
Factor that leads to groupthink 3
nature of situation
----stress created by outside pressure to solve problems
Major symptoms of groupthink
-group overestimates its power and importance
-group believes tht its side is right and those who oppose them are evil
- closed-mindedness
- great pressure towards consensus
strategies fo avoiding groupthink
-leader encourages members to voice concerns, objections, etc.
-leader presents task in unbiased manner
- divide group into subgroups to work on the same sections independently
- get reactions from outside person
- nongroup members to the organizations should be brought into meetings to play devils advocate.
- if the decisions involve scenarios of the rivals possible reaction should be considered
- a "last chance" meeting should be held
Major theoretic proposition for Groupthink
there is a curvilinear relationship between increases of cohesiveness and productivity.
---a degree of cohesiveness is necessary or cooperative work on task
---but excessive cohesiveness leads to groupthink
Strengths of Groupthink
basic theoretic ideas are sound
---gave many practical suggestions for avoiding groupthink.
functional theory of groupthink
first to describe the steps of problem solving
--initial formulatin of 12-13 steps
-- current formulation has 5-7 steps
Steps to problem solving

(Functional theory of groupthink)
1.) define the problem
2.) identify the cause
3.) determine criteria that a solution must satisfy
--eg attack the cause, be economically practical, be implemented in a certain amount of time, etc.
4.) present proposed solution
5.) evaluate solutions in terms of criteria
6.) select the best solution