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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What grade are you going to get on this final
100 percento
The Golden Mean (Aristotle)
"The Middle Path"

Temperance
Courage
Truthfulness
What is temperance?
balance between too little and too much
What is Courage?
balance between fear and overconfidence
What is truthfulness?
balance between false modesty and narcissism
Categorical Imperative
NEVER break a rule no matter what the negative consequence may be

Lying always harms people
Utilitarianism
Consequences for every action

Behaviors that MAXIMIZE happiness for LARGEST amount of people
Veil of Ignorance (Rawls)
make decision from behind it

make decision from point of absolute neutrality
3 Issues on Ethics
Secret

Disclosure

Privacy
What are the 3 methods of inquiry
Social Scientific

Interpretive

Critical
Social Scientific (method of inquiry)
Culture influences the way we communicate -- deeply rooted in psychology and sociology
Interpretive (method of inquiry)
No analyzing

Describe rather than explain
Critical (method of inquiry)
Understanding and culture. Assume there are certain groups marginalized society
What is a code system?
Allows communication to be possible both VERBALLY and NON-Verbally
What are the 4 key parts of relationships?
Norms, Roles, Beliefs, values
What are HOFSTEDE's 5 dimensions of culture?
Individualism - Collectivism

High Context - Low Content

High Power Dist - Low power Dist.

Masculinity - Femininity

High Uncertainty avoidance - Low uncertainty avoidanse
What is ethnocentrism?
belief that your way of doing something is the best way
Stereotyping (broken into 4 parts)
Equality
Shared Goods
Cooperation
Friendship
What does Intergroup contact theory mean?
for optimal contact in you group you need to meet conditions
Intergroup dialogue
1- speak
2- listen
3-ask questions
What are the 2 aspects of persuasion?
Why we comply

techniques people us to persuade
List the reasons why we comply?
Reciprocity, reciprocal concession
Cognitive dissonance,commitment
Liking, Social Proof, Authority, Scarcity, Restricted freedom
Reciprocal Concession
Door-in-the-face (big request--> smaller request to make them feel obligated) $1000 --> $10 ?

Guilt

Indebtedness theory- to restore balance
Cognitive Dissonance
Holding conflicting ideas simultaneously

... we either reduce the feeling or change the way we think
What are the 4 types of responses to cognitive dissonance?
Free-choice paradigm
Belief Disconfirmation
Effort Justification
Induced compliance
What is the free-choice paradigm?
begin to question.... start to make ourselves believe it was the right thing to do
What is belief disconfirmation?
Avoiding info that is inconsistent with our beliefs
Effort Justification
lots of effort leads to invested value
Induced compliance
incentive... we can blame it later
Commitment (reason to comply)
More committed--> more complying

FITD- already said yes to first request... tack on more
Social proof (reason to comply)
because others are doing it
Authority (reason we comply)
willing to obey and follow the suggestions of authority
Scarcity (reason we comply)
more scarce--> more you want it

sometimes planned ( limited edition get it now bullsheet)
Restricted freedom (reason we comply)
you want what you can't have

and at the end you want more and more
What are the 4 categories of social power?
Reward - do it for reward
Coercive - do it under pressure
Referent- wannabe
Legitimate- objective power (police, teacher etc.)
Expert- trust the one with expertise
What are the 5 component of the Elaboration Likelihood Model? (ELM)

(Persuasion)
Motivation- motivate to be interested in message
Ability- need to understand message
Involvement- need message to be personally relevant
Central Route- messages through here result in longer-lasting decision
Peripheral Route- messages through here have shorter-lasting effect
Fear Appeals-

Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM)
Create fear to make you apply

Perceived threat- believe you're vulnerable and susceptible to threat

Perceived efficacy- believe solution will work and it's doable
Advertising Agency team consists of.....(5)
Account Manager
Art Director
Copywriter
Media Buyer
Account planner
Who is the link between the clients & the agency?
the account manager
Who works in partnership with the copywriter as the creative team to focus on the visual look?
Art Director
Who works with client to create and produce ad campaigns?
Copywriter
Who negotiates,purchases, and monitors media space?
media buyer
Who is the voice of the customer in the agency (they use research to identify audiences and optimize comm)?
Account planner
SWOT Analysis
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
The background, objective/purpose, target audience, and important points make up the ___________. (advertising)
Creative Brief
Who is one of the most influential advertising executives? What thing was he known for?
David Ogilvy

USP- Unique Selling Point (that ONE thing that differentiates your product/brand)
What are some example of Commercial Ad. tactics?
Sex

Subliminal Messages

Product Placement

Celebrity Endorsements
2 iconic ads
apple- 1984

Lyndon Johnson "Daisy"
Benefits provided by an org. to employees to help balance are ___________ benfits
Work/life
What are some work/life benefits?
paid leave, flex time, telecommuting, job sharing, tuition reimbursement
What is FMLA?
Family Medical Leave Act

from the gov
unpaid leave- up to 12 weeks
companies with 50+
The theory that concerns itself with the fairness of how policies, grades, benefits, services are distributed is _____________________
Distributive Justice Theory

Equity
Equality
Need
Systems theory says that.......
An org. is a SYSTEM of inter-connected parts that are interdependent

Like a CAR
Organizational culture lies on a _____________ from __________ --> __________
Continuum

Innovation

Tradition
Individualism/collectivism
power distance
dominance
time
uncertainty avoidance

are all.....
components of ORG. CULTURE
What are the 4 types of ORG. CULTURES?
Tough Guy / Macho-man
Work Hard / Play Hard
Bet-your-company
Process- (university)
What is the single most important thing in organizations?
COMMUNICATION
What are the 3 main functions within and org?
Command Function
Relational Function
Ambiguity-Management Function
When we issue, receieve, interpret & act on commands
Command function
When we create productive relationships within the org. with co-workers... then we become more productive, satisfied, and reliable
Relational function
Choices are often made within culture of uncertainty (you don't always know how a decision affects other part of the org. --> __________ function
Ambiguity-mgmt function
Within supervisory comm. the focus is on ___________
LMX- Leader-Member exchange
What are some of the guidelines of LMX?
Be supportive
Avoid Micromanaging
Allow employee's to make their own decisions
Built trust
Trust consists of......
Behavioral Contingency
Behavioral Integrity
Sharing & delegation of control
Comm.
Demonstration of concern
the point where you hit nfo overload and can't be productive any more
Law of Diminishing Returns
info changed from person to person and you want the most amount of accuracy... this is known as ____ ______________ of communication
(the directness) of comm
Upward Comm serves what 5 functions for the lower-downs?
- Provides Mgmt with info. for decision making
- helps relieve employee frustration
- enhances employee sense of participation
- measures effectiveness
of downward comm
-suggests better uses for downward comm
Task coordination, problem solving, info sharing, and conflict resolution are all example of what comm pattern?
HORIZONTAL
Rumor/gossip serve TWO purposes: they are......
Self-serving- to hurt others

and

Group-serving- to create trust, increase productivity & decrease ambiguity
Rumors pass through which THREE types of message change
Leveling- details left out

Sharpening- exaggerate certain parts of original message


Assimilation- make message fit personal ideas about what it should portay
what % of gossip is true?
80%
failure to change =
failure of the org
what is Mediated comm. and what are the 2 types?
comm. that is transferred through a medium of some sort

2 types: Indirect and Source
Comm that is pure sending + receiving, where sensory and feedback are limited
INDIRECT
Comm. that can include multiple people of entities, and involves conflicts of interest
SOURCE
info changed from person to person and you want the most amount of accuracy... this is known as ____ ______________ of communication
(the directness) of comm
Upward Comm serves what 5 functions for the lower-downs?
- Provides Mgmt with info. for decision making
- helps relieve employee frustration
- enhances employee sense of participation
- measures effectiveness
of downward comm
-suggests better uses for downward comm
Task coordination, problem solving, info sharing, and conflict resolution are all example of what comm pattern?
HORIZONTAL
Rumor/gossip serve TWO purposes: they are......
Self-serving- to hurt others

and

Group-serving- to create trust, increase productivity & decrease ambiguity
Rumors pass through which THREE types of message change
Leveling- details left out

Sharpening- exaggerate certain parts of original message


Assimilation- make message fit personal ideas about what it should portay
what % of gossip is true?
80%
failure to change =
failure of the org
what is Mediated comm. and what are the 2 types?
comm. that is transferred through a medium of some sort

2 types: Indirect and Source
Comm that is pure sending + receiving, where sensory and feedback are limited
INDIRECT
Comm. that can include multiple people of entities, and involves conflicts of interest
SOURCE
When there is a prioritized list of item and the listeners get what the senders choose... this phenomenon is referred to as
Agenda Setting
The way that information is presented and how it's portrayed is a tactic called......
framing
The idea that people are more comfortable expressing their own opinion when they are WITH the majority (and minority stays silent so they will remain the minority)
Spiral of Silence
The hypodermic needle model of message flow says....
we have information injected into our minds
WHO ARE people we trust to provide us with info because they're more educated and so we trust them?
Opinion leaders
What is selective exposure?
idea that we select the media we are exposed to
What is selective attention?
Idea that we look for info that's consistent with our beliefs
Since, over time we are exposed to TV so much, we begin to enter a world that's innaccurate

this is known as the....
cumulative process
Resonance
Confirms our view of reality when we see our view as consistent with friends, family, and people
Cultivation theory affects us through 3 processes
cumulative process, mainstreaming, and resosnance
The theory that media fulfills needs and desires such as: cognition, alleviate loneliness, substitute companionship, diverts us from problems, fantasy escape, advice.
Uses & Gratification theory
What is the diffusion on innovation?
how quickly info spreads, and what channels it goes through
Innovators- ? %
Early Adopter- ?%
Early Majority- ? %
Late Majority- ?%
2.5%
13.5%
34%
34%
16%
Prior restraint means you cannot
report on certain topics from the get-go...pentagon papers
Because of this, certain people cannot be compelled by the court to reveal certain information
Reporter's Privilege (Shield Law)

only have to tell secrets if its pivotal to he case
What's the FOI
freedom of information act
What is libel?
printed, produced, or broadcasted defamation
He's a MURDERERRR is an example of .......
SLANDER
The 5 categories of defamation are....
defamation, identified, published, due diligence, and the show is it was false
Means of connecting and interacting actively with other
Social Media CMC comp. mediated. comm.
too much personal facts on the web.... you can store info and kick out the stragglers
hyperperson theory