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43 Cards in this Set

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Letters are read more easily when they are embedded in words when they are presented either in isolation or with letters that do not form words.
Word-Superiority Effect
The process by which we translate sensory info into a meaningful representation that we perceive. This representation is based on our understanding of the meanings of words.
Semantic encoding
characteristic patterns across language of various culture.
Linguistic universals
both languages are represented in a unified cognitive system.
Single system hypothesis for bilingualism
Each language is represented in a seperate cognitive system.
dual system hypothesis for bilingualism
a regional variety of a language distinguished by features such a vocabulary, syntax, and pronunciation.
Dialect
communicate in a way that makes it easy for our
listener to understand what we mean
Cooperative principle
the study of how people use language
Pragmatics
stereotype sequence of actions

- Props
- Roles
- Opening Conditions
- Scenes
- Results
Script
utterances according to the theory can be classified as the type of speech they represent.

Categories: Representative Directive Commissive Expressive Declaration
Speech Acts
are errors in which sounds or entire words are rearranged between two or more different words
Slips of the tongue
Tailored not to overly offend or impose upon the listener
Indirect request
juxtapose two nouns in a way that positively asserts their similarities, while not disconfirming their dissimilarities
Metaphor
strict dictionary definition
denotation
“oral expression that explores the production of
all the possible phonemes humans can produce.”
cooing
one-word utterances that are meant to convey one’s intentions, desires, and demands.
holophrases
erroneously extending the meaning of words in the existing lexicon to cover things and ideas for which a new word is lacking. ie= all men are called Dada
overextension
imitation of vocalizations without changing for the different tenses, etc...ie- the mices fells down the hole.
Overregularization
The study of meaning in a language.
Semantic
is the system of rules for combining the various units of speech.
syntax
rules that establish the way words can be combined into meaningful phrases & sentences
grammar
We have some mental mechanism
for classifying words according to syntactical categories and is separate from meaning.
phrase-structure
(Chomsky): People understand a sentence by transforming the surface structure into a basic, deep structure or KERNEL.
transformational grammar
(motherese): use of a higher pitch than normal to exaggerate vocal inflections of speech (also includes using simpler sentences & easier vocabulary)
Child directed speech
the child’s language pattern and vocabulary reflect
that of the people around him/her.
Nurture: imitation
language is acquired through the OPERANT CONDITIONING PROCESS
Nurture: conditioning
process by which we identify words based on letter combination. We thereby activate our memory in regard to the words.
Lexical access
ACT* represented in the form of production system
Procedural Knowledge
alternative model for representing declarative knowledge comprised of a web of interconnected elements (network), nodes representing concepts, and links indicating the nature of the relationship.
Semantic Network
represent concepts, connections between them are
labeled relationships which might involve category membership
Node
required entire set of rules (production) for executing the task or for using a skill
Production & Production System
fundamental unit of symbolic knowledge - an idea about something. Used to Classify,
Efficient communication,
Learn others, Create new knowledge
Concept
Mental framework for representing knowledge.
Schema
a particular type of schema for representing some stereotyped sequence of events.
Script
(Adaptive Control of Thought): model that attempts to account for all of cognition
1. PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE represented in the form of production system
2. DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE represented in the form of propositional network
ACT*
spreading of activation from one node to another, activation weaker as it fans out
Spreading Activation
proposed conception of schemas
Frame
Mental
structure within which parallel processing is believed to occur
in the network
Parallel Distributed Processing
the smallest unit of sound in a spoken language
phonemes
smallest meaningful unit of language
morphemes
Entire set of morphemes in a given language
lexicon
words that convey the bulk of the meaning
Content Morphemes
morphemes that add detail and nuance to the meaning of the content morpheme
Function Morphemes