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166 Cards in this Set

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attention only control group
a control group whose members meet regularly with a clinician but receive no "active" treatment
catharsis
the release of emotions
common factors
a set of features that characterize many therapy orientations and that may be the source of the positive changes effected by psychological treatment
control group
in psychotherapy research, the group that does not receive the treatment under investigation
depth of a problem
the changeability of a condition of behavior (the "deeper" the condition, the less changeable it is perceived to be)
effect size
the size of the treatment effect (determined statistically)
effectiveness studies
studies that emphasize external validity and the representativeness of the treatment that is administered. A treatment is considered effective to the extent that clients report clinically significant benefit from the treatment
efficacy studies
studies that place a premium on internal validity by controlling the types of clients in the study, by standardizing the treatments, and by randomly assigning patients to treatment or no-treatment groups. A treatment is considered efficacious to the extent that the average person receiving the treatment in clinical trials is demonstrated to be significantly less dysfunctional than the average person not receiving any treatment (eg. those on a waiting list for treatment)
empirically supported treatments (ESTs)
treatments for various psychological conditions that have been shown through careful empirical study to be either "well established" or "probably efficacious." A list of ESTs is updated and published periodically by the APA's Division of Clinical Psychology
expert role
the therapist's demonstration of competence (ie. knowledge and experience)
insight
in the context of psychotherapy, the achievement of understanding into the nature and origins of one's problems
interpretation
in the context of psychotherapy, the therapist's conceptualization of the meaning behind the patient's experiences or behaviors
manualized treatment
psychotherapeutic treatment that is presented and described in a standardized, manual format (ie, outlining the rationales, goals, and techniques that correspond to each phase of the treatment)
mastery
the acquisition of a high level of knowledge or skill. One goal of psychotherapy may be for the patient to develop competence/mastery in a particular area
meta-analysis
a method of research in which one compiles all studies relevant to a topic or question and combines the results statistically
nonspecific factors
factors that are not specific to any particular therapy orientation yet contribute to a positive treatment outcome (eg. the expectation that one will improve)
outcome measures
in psychotherapy research, indicators of patient functioning following treatment, used to gauge the treatment effectiveness
paraprofessionals
individuals without advanced education in psychology who have been trained to assist professional mental health workers
patient functioning
how well a patient is getting along across a number of domains (eg. psychological, social/interpersonal, occupational)
practice guidelines
these guidelines recommend specific forms of intervention for specific psychological problems or disorders
process research
research that investigates the specific events that occur in the course of the ineraction between therapist and patient. Some therapy processes have been shown to relate to treatment outcome
psychological intervention
a method of inducing changes in a person's behavior, thoughts, or feelings
stages of change
a series of stages that represent a given client's readiness for change in psychotherapy. These include: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination
therapeutic alliance
the relationship between therapist and patient. The forging of a strong therapeutic alliance is believed to be of primary importance for therapeutic change
treatment group
in psychotherapy research, the group that receives the treatment under investigation
waiting list control group
a control group whose members receive treament only after the study is completed
antecedent conditions
stimulus conditions, or conditions that lead up to the behavior of interest
behavioral assessment
an assessment approach that focuses on the interactions between situations and behaviors for the purpose of effecting behavioral change
behavioral interviews
interviews conducted for the purpose of identifying a problem behavior, the situational factors that maintain the behavior and the consequences that result from the behavior
behavioral rehearsal
role-playing, the term behavioral rehearsal is usually used in cases where the patient is trying to develop a new response pattern
cognitive-behavioral assessment
an assessment approach recognizing that the person's thoughts or cognitions play an important role in behavior
cognitive-functional approach
an assessment approach that calls for the functional analysis of the client's thinking process. In this approach, the clinician completes a careful analysis of the person's cognitions, how they are aiding or interfering with performance, and under what situations this is occurring
consequent events
outcomes, or events that follow from the behavior of interest
controlled observation
an observational method in which the clinician exerts a certain amount of purposeful control over the events being observed; also known as analogue behavioral observation. Controlled observation may be preferred in situations where a behavior does not occur very often on its own or where normal events are likely to draw the patient outside the observer's range
controlled performance technique
an assessment procedure in which the clinician places individuals in carefully controlled performance situations and collects data on their performance/behaviors, their emotional reactions (subjectively rated), and/or various psychophysiological indices
dysfunctional thought record
completed by the client and provides the client and therapist with a record of the client's automatic thoughts that are related to dysphoria or depression
ecological momentary assessment
a new method of behavioral assessment in which participants record their thoughts, feelings, or behaviors as they occur in the natural environment. This is typically accomplished through use of electronic diaries
ecological validity
in the context of behavioral assessment, the extent to which the behaviors analyzed or observed are representative of a person's typical behavior
electronic diaries
a technique used in behavior assessment in which individuals carry handheld computers that are programmed to prompt the individuals to complete assessments at that moment in time, in participant's natural environment
functional analysis
a central feature of behavioral assessment. In a functional analysis, careful analyses are made of the stimuli preceding a behavior and the consequences following from it to gain a precise understanding of the causes of the behavior
home observation
observation that is carried out in the patient's home by trained observers using an appropriate observational rating system
hospital observation
observation that is carried out in psychiatric hospitals or institutions using an observational device designed for that purpose
observation
a primary technique of behavioral assessment. Observation is often used to gain a better understanding of the frequency, strength, and pervasiveness of the problem behavior as well as the factor that are maintaining it
observer drift
a phenomenon in which observers who work closely together subtly, and without awareness, begin to drift away from other observers in their ratings
organismic variables
physical, physiological, or cognitive characteristics of the client that are important for both the conceptualization of the client's problem and the formulation of effective treatments
psychophysiological measures
used to assess central nervous system, autonomic nervous system, or skeletomotor activity. Assess processes that are not directly assessed by self report or behavioral measures, and are more sensitive measures of these processes than alternative measures
reactivity
in the context of observation, the phenomenon in which individuals respond to the fact that they are being observed by changing their behavior
role-playing
a technique in which patients are directed to respond the way the would typically respond if they were in a given situation, the situation may be described to them, or an assistant may actually act the part of another person
sample
behavioral assessment uses a "sample" orientation to testing--that is, the goal is to gather examples that are representative of the situations and behaviors of interest
school observation
behavioral observation that is conducted in a school setting. As with home observation, trained observers rate the patient using an appropriate observational system
self-monitoring
an observational technique in which individuals observe and record their own behaviors, thoughts, or emotions (including information on timing, frequency, intensity, and duration)
sign
traditional assessment uses a "sign" approach to testing--that is, the goal is to identify marks of underlying characteristics
situational test
a controlled observation technique in which the clinician places individuals in situations more or less similar to those of real life and then observes their reactions directly
SORC model
a model for conceptualizing clinical problems from a behavioral perspective, in this model, S=the stimulus or antecedent conditions that bring on the problematic behavior, O=the organismic variables related to the behavior, R=the response or the behavior itself, and C=the consequences of the behavior
unit of analysis
in the context of observation, the length of time observations will be made and the type and number of responses that will be rated
anal stage
the psychosexual stage that extends from about 6 months to 3 years of age, during which the child focuses on urination and defecation as means of satisfaction
analysis of dreams
a psychoanalytic technique that attempts to shed light on unconscious material
brief psychotherapy
psychotherapy of relatively brief duration that has grown in popularity due in large part to the cost-containment measures imposed by health care systems. Many brief therapies have retained a psychodynamic identity
catharsis
the release of psychic energy (achieved by reliving traumatic events) believed by psychoanalysts to have important therapeutic benefits
death instincts (thanatos)
the innate drives that are responsible for all of the negative or destructive aspects of behavior
defense mechanisms
strategies used by the ego to stave off threats originating internally, from one's id or superego
ego
the organized, rational component of the personality. The ego uses perception, learning, planing, and so forth to satisfy the needs of the organism while at the same time preserving its place in the world
ego analysis
an alternative to traditional psychoanalysis that is characterized by relative deemphases on the role of the unconscious and the exploration of childhood experience and relative emphases on the adaptive functions of the ego and exploration of contemporary problems in living
fixation
the defense mechanism that occurs when the frustration and anxiety of the next psychosexual stage cause the individual to be arrested at his or her current level of psychosexual development
free association
a cardinal rule of psychoanalysis in which patients are required to say anything and everything that comes to mind. Over time, free association is believed to shed light on unconscious thoughts and urges
genital stage
the psychosexual stage that follows the onset of adolescence and ideally culminates in a mature expression of sexuality
id
the deep, inaccessible portion of the personality that contains the instinctual urges. The id is without order, logic or morals and operates solely to gratify the instinctual urges
insight
in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, a complete understanding of the unconscious determinants of one's irrational and problematic thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT)
a brief, insight-oriented therapy that is psychodynamic in tone. IPT has been applied primarily to the treatment of depression, and is considered a "well-established" empirically supported treatment for this disorder
interpretation
a method in which the psychoanalyst reveals the unconscious meanings of the patient's thoughts and behaviors, thus helping the patient to achieve insight. Interpretation is the cornerstone of nearly every form of dynamic psychotherapy
latency stage
the psychosexual stage that extends from about 5 to 12 years of age, during which the child is characterized by a lack of overt sexual activity (and perhaps even a negative orientation toward anything sexual)
latent content
the symbolic meaning of a dream's event
life instincts (Eros)
the innate drives that are responsible for all of the positive or constructive aspects of behavior
manifest content
what actually happens during a dream
moral anxiety
anxiety that arises from the concern that a person will act in a way that conflicts with the standards of his or her conscience
neurotic anxiety
anxiety that stems from the fear that a person's id impulses will be expressed unchecked, thus resulting in trouble
Oedipus complex
the phase in which a child feels sexual attraction for the parent of the opposite sex and feelings of hostility toward the parent of the same sex. The superego emerges from the resolution of this complex
oral stage
the psychosexual stage spanning about the first year of live, during which the mouth is the chief source of pleasure and satisfaction
phallic stage
the psychosexual stage that extends from about 3 to 7 years of age, during which the sexual organs become the primary source of gratification
pleasure principle
the rule of conduct by which one seeks pleasure and avoids pain, the id operates according to the pleasure principle
primary process
the irrational and impulsive type of thinking that characterizes the id
projection
the defense mechanism that occurs when a person attributes his or her unconscious feelings to someone else
psychic determinism
a major assumption of Freudian theory that holds that everything one does has meaning and is goal directed
psychosexual stages
a series of developmental stages posited by Freud, each of which is marked by the involvement of a particular erogenous zone of the body
reaction formation
the defense mechanism that occurs when an unconscious impulse is consciously expressed by its behavioral opposite
regression
the defense mechanism that occurs when extensive frustration causes a person to return to a stage that once provided a great deal of gratification
repression
the most basic defense mechanism, repression serves to keep highly threatening sexual or agressive material out of conscious awareness, often involuntarily
resistance
any attempt by the patient to ward off the therapist's efforts to dissolve his or her neurotic methods for resolving problems, any client action or behavior that prevents insight or prevents bringing unconsious material into consciousness
secondary process
the rational and self-preservative type of thinking that characterizes ego
superego
the component of the personality that represents the ideals and values of society as they are conveyed to the child through the words and deeds of his or her parents. The role of the superego is to block unacceptable id impulses and to pressure the ego to serve the ends of morality rather than those of expediency
talking cure
discovered by Breuer, the use of techniques that encourage patient talking as a way of addressing and alleviating neurotic symptoms
therapeutic alliance
the bond between patient and therapist. A strong therapeutic alliance is believed to contribute significantly to a positive therapeutic outcome
transference
a key phenomenon in psychoanalytic therapy in which the patient reacts to the therapist as if the therapist represented an important figure from the patient's past
unconscious
the portion of the mind that is not accessible to awareness
unconscious motivation
motivation that resides outside conscious awareness, Freud posited the existence of unconscious motivation and asserted that it was responsible, in large part, for disturbed behavior
working-through process
a careful and repeated examination of how one's conflicts and defenses have operated in many areas of one's life, it is through this process that an insight achieves true, full meaning for the patient
client-centered therapy
a psychotherapy developed by Carl Rogers that emphasizes the importance of the client's perceptions of his or her experience and recognizes an inherent human tendency toward developing one's capacities. This therapy orientation seeks to facilitate the client's growth potential
congruence
one of the three therapist characteristics considered essential for client-centered work (also referred to as genuineness). Congruence refers to the honest expression by the therapist of the behaviors, feelings, and attitudes that have been stimulated by the client
de-reflection
a technique described by Frankl in which the client is instructed to ignore a troublesome behavior or symptom in order to divert his or her attention to more constructive thoughts or activies
empathy
one of the three therapist characteristics considered essential for client-centered work, empathy refers to sensitivity to the needs, feelings and circumstances of clients so that they feel understood
existential psychology
an orientation to psychology that views people as engaged in a search for meaning
Gestalt games
"games" developed by the Gestaltists to emphasize the "rules" of Gestalt therapy. Often, these games may involve making prescribed verbalizations or engaging in various role-plays
growth potential
a capacity for competence that all individuals possess, the goal of client-centered therapy is to release this capacity
humanism
an approach to psychology that views individuals as unified, whole, and unique beings who exercise free choice and strive to develop their inner potentials
logotherapy
(literally, "the therapy of meaning") a widely known form of existential therapy developement by Victor Frankl that encourages the client (a) to find meaning in what appears to be a callous, uncaring, and meaningless world and (b) to develop a sense of responsibility for his or her life
moral precepts
in Gestalt therapy, rules for patients to live by (eg. live now, express directly, reject all "shoulds" and "oughts" that are not your own, take complete responsibility for your actions)
paradoxical intention
a technique described by Frankl in which the client is told to consciously attempt to perform the very behavior or response that is the object of anxiety or concern, the paradox is that the person will usually be unable to do what he or she fears doing when he or she tries to do it intentionally
person-centered approach
the client-centered approach when it is applied to problems or situations outside of the therapy room (eg. volunteer training, the training of medical professionals)
phenomenal self
the part of the phenomenal field that the person experiences as "me." According to phenomenological theory, humans have a basic urge to perserve and enhance the phenomenal self
phenomenology
a philisophical/theoretical approach that asserts that an individual's behavior is completely determinded by his or her phenomenal field, or everything that is experienced by the person at any given point in time
process-experential therapy
a relatively new treatment approach that integrates the client-centered and Gestalt therapy traditions
self
the awareness of one's being and functioning as separate and distinct from all else
self-actualization
the basic human tendency toward maintaining and enhancing the self
anxiety hierarchy
in systematic desensitization, a list of situations that precipitate anxiety reactions, ordered from lowest to hightest severity. Often, items may be organized according to their spatial or temporal distance from the feared stimulus
assertiveness training
using behavioral rehearsal and other techniques to train people to express their needs effectively without infringing on the rights of others
aversion therapy
a controversial type of treatment in which an undesired behavior is followed consistently by an unpleasant consequence, thus decreasing the strength of the behavior over time
behavioral rehearsal
a general technique for expanding the patient's repertoire of coping behaviors, successful behavioral rehearsal involves explaining to the patient the necessity of acquiring the new behaviors, selecting the target situations, conducting the rehearsal and providing feedback, and having the patient apply the newly acquired skills in real-life situations
behavior therapy
a framework for treating disorders that is based on the principles of conditioning or learning, the behavioral approach is scientific in nature and deemphasizes the role of inferred (ie. unobservable) variables on behavior
cognitive-behavioral therapy
a therapy framework that emphasizes the role of thinking in the etiology and maintenance of problems, cognitive-behavioral techniques attempt to modify the patterns of thinking that are believed to contribute to a patient's problems and may also employ the principles of conditioning and learning to modify problematic behaviors
cognitive therapy
a mode of therapy pioneered by Aaron Beck that focuses on the connection between thinking patterns, emotions, and behavior and uses both cognitive and behavioral techniques to modify the dysfunctional thinking patterns that characterize a disorder, cognitive therapy is active, structured, and time limited and has been adapted for the treatment of several disorders
contingency contracting
a contingency management technique in which the therapist and patient draw up a contract that specifies the behaviors that are desired and undesired as well as the consequences of engaging or failing to engage in these behaviors
contingency management
any one of a variety of operant conditioning techniques that attempts to control a behavior by manipulating its consequences
counterconditioning
the principle of substituting relaxation for an anxiety response
covert sensitization
a form of aversion therapy in which patients are directed to imagine themselves engaging in undesired behavior and then are instructed to imagine extremely aversive events occurring once they have the undesired behavior clearly in mind
dialectical behavior therapy
a cognitive-behavioral therapy developed by Marsha Linehan for borderline personality disorder and related conditions that teaches skills in mindfulness, emotion regulation, distress tolerance, and interpersonal effectiveness
exposure plus response prevention
a behavioral technique often used for the treatment of OCD. In this technique, the patient is exposed to the situation that spurs his or her obsession and is prevented from engaging in the compulsive behavior that relieves the obsession. Ultimately, the patient will habituate to his or her obsession, and the compulsive behavior will be extinguished
exposure therapy
a behavioral technique for reducing anxiety in which patients expose themselves (in real life or in fantasy) to stimuli or situations that are feared or avoided. To be effective, the exposure must provoke anxiety, must be of sufficient duration, and must be repeated until all anxiety is eliminated
extinction
the elimination of an undesired response (eg. behavioral, emotional)
habituation
the elimination of a response that comes about from the repeated and/or prolonged presentation of the provoking stimulus
interoceptive cues
internal physiological stimuli (eg. dizziness or nausea)
modeling
also known as observational learning, the learning of a new skill or set of behaviors by observing another person perform these skills/behaviors
overcorrection
a form of aversion therapy in which the client is made to "overcorrect" for the consequences of his or her undesired behavior
Premack principle
the contingency management technique in which a behavior is reinforced by allowing the individual to engage in a more attractive activity once the target behavior is completed
rational-emotive therapy (RET)
a therapy pioneered by Albert Ellis in which patients are forced to confront and correct their own illogical thinking. In Ellis's system, a person's beliefs about events, rather than the events themselves, determine the problematic emotional or behavioral consequences
rational restructuring
an eclectic set of techniques that teaches individuals to examine their assumptions about situations of the world in general and alter their ideas to be more realistic or rational
reciprocal inhibition
the principle underlying systematic desensitization that one cannot be both relaxed and anxious at the same time. Therefore, phobic clients are taught to relax in the face of previously feared stimuli
relaxation
a state of lowered anxiety, stress, and physioligcal arousal. Relaxation may be induced by tensing then relaxing, various muscle groups or via breathing exercises, imagery exercises, or hypnosis
response cost
a form of aversion therapy in which positive reinforcers are removed following an undesired behavior
shaping
a contingency management technique in which a behavior is developed by first rewarding any behavior that aproximates it and then by selectively reinforcing behaviors that more and more resemble that target behavior
stress-inoculation training
a technique developed by Donald Meichenbaum that attempts to prevent problems by "inoculating" patients to ongoing and future stressors. SIT involves educating patients about how certain appraisal patterns lead to stress, teaching them to identify and cope with potential stressors, rehearsing these coping skills in the therapy setting, and consolidating these skills by applying them across a range of real-life, stressful situations
successive approximation
another term for shaping
symptom substitution
the notion that if a symptom is removed without attending to the underlying pathology of an illness, another symptom will emerge to take its place
systematic desensitization
a behavioral technique for reducing anxiety in which patients practice relaxation while visualizing anxiety-provoking situations of increasing intensity. In this way, the patient becomes "desensitized" to the feared stimulus
time-out
a contingency management technique in which a person is removed temporarily from the situation that is reinforcing the undesired behavior
token economy
a system in which desired behaviors are promoted through the strict control of reinforcements. Establishing such a system requires specifying the immediate reinforcers for each behaviors as well as the backup reinforcers for which patients can exchange their immediate reinforcers
behavior therapy groups
an approach in which patients with similar problems (eg. depression, agoraphobia, pain) are treated as a group using standard behavioral or cognitive-behavioral methods. In behavior therapy groups, little attention is generally given to group dynamics
behavioral family therapy
an approach to family therapy that views family relations in terms of reinforcement contingencies. Here, the therapist's role is to generate a behavioral analysis of family problems and induce family members to reinforce each other so as to increase the frequency of desired behaviors. A more cognitively focused therapist might teach individual family members to self-monitor problematic behaviors and patterns of thinking and challenge their interpretations of family events
behavioral marital therapy (BMT)
a form of couples therapy that applies the principles of reinforcement to a couple's interactions. Major components of BMT include contingency contracting, support-understanding techniques, and problem-solving techniques
communication
the verbal or nonverbal exchange of information about facts, thoughts, or feelings
concurrent family therapy
a form of family therapy in which one therapist sees all family members in individual sessions. In some cases, the therapist may conduct traditional psychotherapy with the principle patient but also occasionally see other members of the family
conjoint family therapy
a form of family therapy in which on therapist meets with the entire family at the same time
contingency contracting
in BMT, a technique in which spouses are trained to modify their own behavior to bring about a specific desired change in the behavior of their mate
couples therapy
a form of psychotherapy in which a couple (married, unmarried, or same-sex) meets with one or more therapists to work on any number of issues
curative factors in group therapy
the commonalities among diverse group therapy approaches proposed by Yalom to be the source of the positive treatment effect. These factors include imparting information, instilling hope, universality, altruism, interpersonal learning, imitative behavior, corrective recapitulation of the primary family, catharsis, and group cohesiveness
double-blind
a case in which an individual is told two contradictory messages by an important figure in his or her life, such that every response he or she makes with regard to that figure is wrong. At one time, double-blind situations were believed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia
emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT)
a from of couples therapy that is based on the assumption that marital distress results from negative affect and destructive interactional styles. The interventions of EFT attempt to change partners' problematic interactional styles and emotional responses so that a stronger and more secure emotional bond can be established
family therapy
a form of psychotherapy in which several members of a family are seen by the therapist in addition to the identified patient. This therapy modality is based on the idea that everyone in a family is affected when one member develops a problem and that the home environment may have contributed to the development of the problem in the first place. Although there are a variety of theoretical family approaches, most share the primary goal of improving communication within the family
general systems theory
an important concept in family therapy that conceives of the family as a system and believes that "pathology" is best reduced by altering the way that the system functions
Gestalt group therapy
a group approach in which the therapist focuses on one patient at a time and asks that person to experience his or her feelings and behaviors while the other group members are asked to observe or provide feedback to the person in the "hot seat"
group therapy
a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists treat a number of patients at the same time. Generally speaking, most groups consist of five to ten patients who meet with the therapist at least once a week for 90-minute to 2-hour sessions. However, groups may differ greatly in their theoretical orientations, their rules and exclusions, and whether they are viewed as primary or supplemental modes of treatment
problem-solving techniques
in BMT, training couples in positive communication skills to enhance the effectiveness of decision making and negotiation
psychoanalytic group psychotherapy
generally speaking, psychoanalytic therapy carried out in a group setting. Here, group dynamics are considered secondary to individual processes, and the group acts as a vehicle through which the individual may obtain insight into his or her unconscious forces and defenses
psychodrama
a form of role-playing developed by Moreno in which one patient in a group acts out a role assigned by the therapist, other patients serve as the supporting cast of "auxiliary egos," and yet other patients serve as the audience. The idea is that by listening to the responses of the auxiliary egos and the reactions of the audience, the patient in the primary role will experience catharsis and self-understanding
support-understanding techniques
in BMT, techniques that aim to increase partners' positive feelings, positive behaviors, and the degree of collaboration between them
time-limited group therapy
a group approach to brief therapy forwarded by Budman and Gurman in which patients meet weekly for a predetermined number of sessions. Four central characteristics include pregroup screening and preparation, the establishment and maintenance of a working focus group cohesion, and member reactions to the time limits of the group
transactional analysis
a group method developed by Berne that focuses up on the "ego states"--Child, Parent or Adult--that are evident based on patients' transactions with other group members, as well as the valence (positive or negative) of these ego states, and helps patients adopt ways of thinking that are more characteristic of the positive Adult ego state. Another emphasis in TA is on identifying the games that patients employ to avoid getting too close to others and helping them to adopt more satisfying behaviors