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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
There are far more offenders in prison today than are serving community-based sentences. T/F?
Split sentencing involves a brief period of incarceration in prison and shock probation involves a brief period of incarceration in jail. T/F?
Working as a probation or parole officer is attractive because of the small caseloads and ample opportunities for career mobility. T/F?
Recent research indicates that offenders sentenced to shock incarceration have lower recidivism rates than offenders sentenced to ordinary prisons. T/F?
The Auburn system was a form of imprisonment developed as an alternative to corporal punishments that made use of solitary confinement and encouraged rehabilitation. T/F?
The reformatory era of imprisonment was based upon a medical model of corrections. T/F?
The primary philosophy behind prisons today is rehabilitation. T/F?
The just deserts philosophy has led to substantial and continued increases in the American prison population. T/F?
Research indicates that prison subcultures have been stable over time despite changes in the wider culture. T/F?
Like inmates, correctional officers are socialized into the official and unofficial rules of staff society. T/F?
Few women's prisons have programs specifically designed for female offenders. T/F?
The majority of offenses committed by women who are in prisons and jails are violent offenses T/F?
Probation, parole, home confinement, and electronic monitoring are examples of:

A) community-based corrections.

B) imprisonment.

C) restitution.

D) lenient sentences
a) community-based corrections.
Discretionary parole is granted by:

A) correctional personnel.

B) statutory decree.

C) a parole board.

D) the governor
c) a parole board.
Which of the following is not a function of a probation or parole officer's work?

A) assistance to prosecutors by conducting arrests and investigations

B) intake procedures

C) needs assessment and diagnosis

D) supervision of clients
a) assistance to prosecutors by conducting arrests and investigations
All of the following are advantages of using probation instead of imprisonment except:

A) allows the offender to maintain family ties.

B) increases employment opportunities for offenders.

C) increased risk to the

D) increases the likelihood restitution will be paid.
c) increased risk to the
Which type of sentence requires that offenders serve weekends in jail and receive probation supervision during the week?

A) diverse sentence

B) split sentence

C) mixed sentence

D) shared sentence
c) mixed sentence
Which of the following sentences is not an example of an intermediate sanction?

A) simple probation

B) shock incarceration

C) intensive probation

D) house arrest with electronic monitoring
a) simple probation
What type of probation might require face-to-face contacts between the officer and the probationer five times a week, a mandatory curfew, having a job, and submitting to weekly alcohol and drug testing?

A) intensive

B) concentrated

C) shock

D) directed
a) intensive
Revocation of probation or parole:

A) requires the concurrence of an appellate court judge.

B) requires procedural safeguards including a hearing.

C) can be enacted merely on a decision to revoke made by the probationer's or parolee's probation or parole officer.

D) is not governed by any particular due process requirement.
b) requires procedural safeguards including a hearing.
Which of the following is not cited as a disadvantage of probation and parole?

A) Probation and parole expose the community to greater risk than does incarceration.

B) Probation and parole programs are underused, enabling practitioners to adequately supervise offenders on their caseloads.

C) Probation and parole serve a relative lack of punishment
upon the offender.

D) Probation and parole result in increased social costs.
b) Probation and parole programs are underused, enabling practitioners to adequately supervise offenders on their caseloads.
What is the most common form of criminal sentencing in the United States?

A) parole

B) shock incarceration

C) imprisonment

D) probation
d) probation
Which type of sentence requires that offenders serve time in a local jail before a period of supervised probation?

A) split sentence

B) mixed sentence

C) shock probation

D) shock incarceration
a) split sentence
The stocks and the pillory are examples of what type of punishment?

A) public humiliation

B) exile

C) flogging

D) branding
a) public humiliation
The Pennsylvania style of imprisonment was characterized by:

A) hard work and enforced

B) solitary confinement and individual cells.

C) flogging and mutilation.

D) social restoration and incapacitation.
b) solitary confinement and individual cells.
Who created the Irish system of imprisonment?

A) Captain Alexander Maconochie

B) Enoch Wines

C) Sir Walter Crofton

D) Zebulon Brockway
c) Sir Walter Crofton
What type of inmate labor system allows private businesses to rent inmates for labor?

A) public works

B) state-use

C) contract system

D) piece-price
c) contract system
What era was based on the medical model of corrections?

A) treatment

B) community-based

C) penitentiary

D) punitive
a) treatment
________ capacity refers to the inmate population the institution was originally built to handle.

A) Design

B) Rated

C) Operational

a) Design
The use of prison chain gangs, the abolition of parole, and taking away some of the "comforts" of prison are aspects of which era of imprisonment?

A) penitentiary

B) community-based

C) just deserts

D) reformatory
c) just deserts
A dormitory-like setting, private rooms, and unarmed correctional officers are characteristic of ________ security institutions.

A) medium

B) maximum

C) minimum

c) minimum
What early correctional leader developed a system of marks through which prisoners could earn credits to buy their freedom?
A) Captain Alexander Maconochie

B) Benjamin Rush

C) Sir Walter Crofton

D) Zebulon Brockway
a) Captain Alexander Maconochie
Which of the following is a characteristic of jails?

A) hold inmates who have been sentenced to long periods of incarceration

B) hold suspects following arrest and pending trial

C) operated by the state police

D) hold 44% female inmates
b) hold suspects following arrest and pending trial
ADMAX or Administrative maximum is the term used by the federal government to denote:

A) prisons for white collar criminals.

B) prisons for offenders who have violated administrative law.

C) ultra-high-security prisons.

D) maximum security prisons for females.
c) ultra-high-security prisons.
The historical prison era that focused on providing treatment to inmates outside of prisons was:

A) the just deserts era.

B) the community-based era.

C) the overcrowding era.

D) the era of treatment.
b) the community-based era.
________ capacity is the number of inmates that a facility can effectively accommodate based on an appraisal of the institution's staff, programs, and services.

A) Design

B) Rated

C) Operational

D) Crowded
c) Operational
The rate of imprisonment of black males is about ________ greater than that of white males.

A) five times

B) nine times

C) three times

D) two times
b) nine times
A private prison:

A) is operated by a private firm on behalf of government.

B) is a prison for terrorists that does not reveal the prisoners' identities.

C) houses military prisoners.

D) house no more than 50 prisoners.
a) is operated by a private firm on behalf of government.
Prison language is also called:

A) the secret vocabulary.

B) convict talk.

C) prison argot.

D) "the code."
c) prison argot.
Erving Goffman used what term to describe places where the same people work, recreate, worship, eat, and sleep together?

A) subcultures

B) behavioral reality

C) total institutions

D) organizations
c) total institutions
When a woman is in prison her children are most likely to be cared for by:

A) grandparents.

B) the father.

C) non-relatives.

D) foster parents.
a) grandparents
The socialization of inmates into the prison subculture is called:

A) neutralization.

B) role development.

C) prisonization.

D) schooling.
c) prisonization.
The ________ model of prison culture suggests that inmates bring values, roles, and behavior patterns from the outside world.

A) deprivation

B) importation

C) captive

D) adaptation
b) importation
Researchers have described one type of prisoner who takes advantage of the positive experiences the prison has to offer as:

A) a legalist.

B) a hedonist.

C) a retreatist.

D) an opportunist.
d) an opportunist
Which of the following terms is prison slang for an informant?

A) punk

B) mean dude

C) rat

D) lemon squeezer
c) rat
Which type of prisoner thinks of prison as home and feels more comfortable institutionalized than on the streets?

A) opportunist

B) radical

C) legalist

D) colonizer
d) colonizer
The National Institute of Corrections defines ________ as "creating an environment ...that reflects an understanding of the realities of women's lives and addresses the issues of women."

A) gender-responsiveness

B) gender-neutrality

C) reverse sexism

D) gender-bias
a) gender-responsiveness
Which of the following is not a cause of prison riots?

A) insensitive prison administration and neglect of inmates' demands

B) multiple treatment opportunities for inmates

C) dehumanizing prison conditions

D) "power vacuums" created by changes in prison administration
b) multiple treatment opportunities for inmates
At what phase of prison riots do inmates "binge" with alcohol and drug use, and violence between rivals occurs?

A) confrontation

B) explosion

C) reaction

D) organization
b) explosion
A(n) ________ is a formalized arrangement, usually involving a neutral hearing board, whereby inmates have the opportunity to register complaints about the conditions of their confinement.

A) writ of mandamus

B) grievance procedure

C) inquisition

D) court hearing
b) grievance procedure
Trojanowicz’s five types of intervention include:

A) pure prevention

B) police suppression

C) the police gang unit

D) group guidance
a) pure prevention
The state with the most comprehensive anti gang legislation is:

A) California

B) New York

C) Illinois

D) Florida
a) California
The primary objective of the Mid City Project was:

A) confiscation of guns and other weapons from gangs

B) to end inter gang fighting

C) to inhibit or to reduce gang behaviors and delinquency

D) none of the above
c) to inhibit or to reduce gang behaviors and delinquency
Common elements of youth gang prevention and intervention strategies include:

A) detached workers

B) job training and placement

C) peer/adult mentoring

D) all of the above
d) all of the above
The component of the gang intervention model proposed by Irving Spergel that involves attempts to engage youths is:

A) mobilizing community leaders

B) gang suppression activities

C) using outreach workers

D) community problem solving
c) using outreach workers