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### 89 Cards in this Set

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 Sampling may be defined as the: Process of selecting a subset of the population to represent the entire population Bias in a sample for a quantitative study refers to: Systematic over- or underrepresentation of an attribute vis-à-vis the population Strata are incorporated into the design of which of the following sampling approaches? Quota Which of the following is not a nonprobability sampling method? Cluster sampling The sampling design that would be especially likely to yield a representative sample is: Systematic Which of the following types of sample is considered to be the weakest for quantitative studies? A) Convenience B) Quota C) Purposive D) Systematic Convenience The type of nonprobability design that is most likely to yield a representative sample is: Quota sampling The procedure of weighting is associated with which type of sampling design? Disproportionate sampling A researcher used a probability-type systematic sampling plan. The sample size was 200. The sampling interval was 250. The first element drawn was 196. The second element would be: 446 Which of the following terms does not belong with the others? A) Purposeful sample C) Judgmental sample B) Purposive sample D) Volunteer sample Volunteer sample Theoretical sampling is used by: Grounded theory researchers A sampling strategy that is diametrically opposed to maximum variation sampling is: Homogeneous sampling As qualitative researchers near the end of data collection, they may employ the technique of sampling: Disconfirming cases Samples of 10 or fewer subjects would be most likely to be found in a(n): Phenomenological study Sampling bias would be of greater concern in studying body temperatures in healthy adults than in studying their attitudes toward abortion. False The major criterion in assessing the adequacy of a sample in a quantitative study is the degree to which it represents the characteristics of interest in the population. True Random selection is a key concept in all types of probability sampling designs. True If a probability sampling design has been used, the researcher can safely generalize to the target population. False Systematic sampling involves the successive random sampling of units from largest to smallest. False In a quantitative study, larger samples are more likely to represent the population on the attribute of interest than smaller samples. True Snowball sampling is to convenience sampling what cluster sampling is to simple random sampling. False Each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected in a quota sampling plan. False Systematic sampling may be either probability or nonprobability. True The researcher hand-picks people to be included in a study in cluster sampling. False If a researcher posted a recruitment notice for a study on a website, people who responded would comprise a convenience sample. True Differences between population values and sample values are referred to as weighting errors. False In quantitative studies, power analysis is used to estimate the sample size needed to adequately test research hypotheses. True Populations that are fairly homogeneous with respect to the dependent variable require a smaller sample size for a quantitative inquiry than heterogeneous populations. True A major criterion for assessing the adequacy of a sample in a qualitative study is the degree to which a theory has been developed to adequately describe the population. False In a qualitative study, sample size decisions are often guided by the principle of data saturation. True The sampling strategy that involves the selection of extreme cases is referred to as maximum variation sampling. False Qualitative researchers often strive to purposefully select sample members based on emerging information needs. True In homogeneous sampling, the researcher deliberately seeks to increase variation in the characteristics of the sample members. False Qualitative samples tend to be small primarily because in-depth interviews are so time-consuming there is insufficient time for large samples. False What are the Basic Sampling Concepts? Population Sampling Eligibility criteria Strata Target population Accessible population The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested in is? Population Are populations restricted to humans? No Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population ? Sampling What are elements? Entities that make up samples and populations? Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population is? Sampling What is a subset of a population? sample The characteristics that define the population is? Eligibility criteria/Inclusion criteria What is Exclusion criteria? The population may be defined to exclude people who do not speak english. Subpopulations of a population is? Strata The entire population of interest is? Target population The portion of the target population that is accessible to the researcher, from which a sample is drawn is? Accessible population What are the Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Research? Representative sample Sampling bias Sampling error A sample whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the population? Representative sample What is the main sampling goal in quantitative research? Representative sample Representative sample is more easily achieved with: Probability sampling Homogeneous populations Larger samples What is probability sampling? it involves randome selection of elements from population. What is Homogeneous population? population that exhibits no varibility at all. the elements of the population are identical. What is Sampling bias? The systematic over- or under-representation of segments of the population on key variables What is Sampling error? Differences between sample values and population values What are the 2 braod types of sampling plans? Probability sampling Nonprobability sampling What is Probability sampling? Involves random selection of elements: each element has an equal, independent chance of being selected What is Nonprobability sampling? Does not involve selection of elements at random What are the Types of Nonprobability Sampling—Quantitative Research? Convenience (accidental) sampling Snowball (network) sampling Quota sampling Purposive sampling What is Convenience Sampling? ~Use of the most conveniently available people ~Most widely used approach by quantitative researchers ~Most vulnerable to sampling biases What is Snowball Sampling? Referrals for others who meet eligibility criteria from other people already in a sample. Used to identify people with distinctive characteristics. Used by both quantitative and qualitative researchers. What is Quota Sampling? ~Similer to Convenience sampling within specified strata of the population. ~Enhances representativeness of sample and does not require sophisticated skills or alot of efforts. ~Infrequently used What is Purposive (Judgmental) Sampling? ~Sample members are hand-picked by researcher to achieve certain goals ~Used more often by qualitative than quantitative researchers ~Can be used in quantitative studies to select experts or achieve other goals What are the types of Probability Sampling? Simple random sampling Stratified random sampling Cluster (multistage) sampling Systematic sampling What is Simple Random Sampling? Involves random selection of elements from the sampling frame ~Not to be confused with random assignment to groups in experiments Cumbersome, not used in large, national surveys. ~Uses a sampling frame What is a sampling frame? a list of all population elements What is Stratified Random Sampling? ~Population divided into strata, then random selection from the stratified sampling frames ~Enhances representativeness ~Can sample proportionately or disproportionately from the strata What is the most common procedure for drawing a stratified random sample? to group those elements that belong to a stratum and to randomly select the desired number of elements. What is Cluster (Multistage) Sampling? ~Successive random sampling of units from larger to smaller (e.g., states, then zip codes, then households) ~Widely used in national surveys ~Larger sampling error than simple random sampling, but more efficient What is the most common procedure for national surveys? cluster sampling The number of study participants in the final sample is? The Sample Size What is is a key determinant of sample quality in quantitative research? Sample size Sample size needs can be estimated through? power analysis Cluster sampling is often referred to as ________. multistage sampling What is sampling error/ the difference between population calues and samle values What are the Methods of Sampling in Qualitative Research? Convenience (volunteer) sampling Snowball sampling Purposive sampling Theoretical sampling What are the Types of Purposive Sampling in Qualitative Research (Examples? Maximum variation sampling Homogeneous sampling Extreme/deviant case sampling Typical case sampling Criterion sampling Sampling confirming/disconfirming cases What is Theoretical Sampling? Preferred sampling method in grounded theory research Involves selecting sample members who best facilitate the development of the emerging theory What is Homogeneous sampling? Associated with Purposive sampling. involves a deliberate reduction of variaiton to permit a more focused inquiry. What is Maximum variation sampling? Associated with Purposive sampling. involves purposefully selecting cases with a range of variation on dimensions of interest. What is Extreme/deviant case sampling? Associated with purposive sampling. provides opportunities for learning from the most unusual and extreme informants What is Typical case sampling? Associated with purposive sampling.Involves selecting participants who will illustrate or highlight what is typical or average. What is Criterion sampling? Associated with purposive sampling. involves studying cases that meet a predetermined criterion of importance. What is Sampling confirming cases? Associated with purposive sampling. Additional cases that fit researchers conceptualizations and offer enhanced credibility. What is Sampling Disconfirming cases? Associated with purposive sampling. New cases that do not fit and serve top challange researchers interpretations. Sample Size in Qualitative Research is based on? Sample size determined by informational needs A guiding principle in sampling with Qualitative studies is? data saturation which means sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and rebundacy is achieved. What are the Three Main Qualitative Traditions in sampling? Ethnography Grounded theory Phenomenology What is Ethnography? ~Mingling with many members of the culture—a “big net” approach ~Informal conversations with 25 to 50 informants ~Multiple interviews with smaller number of key informants What is Phenomenology? ~Relies on very small samples (often 10 or fewer) ~Participants must have experienced phenomenon of interest