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70 Cards in this Set

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Social Referencing
Look at parent to determine whether something is okay or not
Bilingual
Helps acquisition of both languages - can use 1 to teach the other
Functionalist Approach
What is the function of that emotion? What makes something relevant? - A goal in mind, other's behavior, ability/sensation/state of mind
Strange Situation
Specific procedure to see how kids respond to strangers - given a secure base, then taken away
Securely Attached
Use mom/dad as a secure base, but play
Avoidantly Attached
Unresponsive to parent, don't distress
Resistant Attachment
Clinging, upset, crying, angry
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
Confused, dazed, out of it, flat affect - greatest insecurity
Reactive Attachment Disorder
Never formed a primary bond with a caring adult - significant issue
Stages of Attachment
Pre-attachment (birth-6 wks.), attachment in the making (6 wks.-8 months), clear cut attachment (8-18 months), reciprocal relationship
John Bowlby
Issue of attachment critical, survival issue
Things that impact attachement
Opportunity, sensitivity of care giver, infant characteristics, family circumstances, parents internal working models
Emotional Display Rules
Where, when, how to display emotion - culturally, genderly influenced
Temperament
Personality - Chess and thomas- activity level, rhythmicity, regularity of schedule, distractable, approach/withdraw, adapability, atention span, responsiveness, quality of mood, reaction strength
Emotional Self-Regulation
Metacognition knowing how you feel, soothe self, what/how much to let out
Self-Concious Emotions
Guilt, shame, embarrassment, price, envy, negative - age 3
Siegler
More efficient at using strategies, quickly learn which strategies will work to survive, ones that don't, dropped out
Rehearsal
Repetition
Organize
Organizing to commit to memory
Mnemonics
Elaboration
Rote Memory
Like phone numbers - not a formula, just have to memorize
Chunking
Good for memorizing numbers, poems
Recognition
Like a multiple choice test - recognize what is correct
Recall
Pull from memory
Eyewitness Testimony
Recall gets more less easy to influence - children assume with recognition that they have been given all of the options
Metacognition
Thinking about thinking, self-regulation
Alfred Binet
First IQ test, Paris, tested memory, judgment, abstraction
Factor Analysis
Ask a bunch of questions, statistical analysis, group together
Gardner
Multiple intelligences - body kinesthetic (movement), naturalist (outdoors), inter/intrapersonal (relationships)
IQ Tests
Group and individual - scores consistent across a lifetime - measure potential and abilitiy - education can maximize range - Standford-Binet (verbal reasoning, abstract visual, reasoning, short term memory, quanitative) - WISC III (For kids, verbal, performance, full scale)
Flynn Effect
IQ scores have gone up - result of technology, mandated public education, more known about kids' needs
Test Bias
Mexicans being tested in English when primary language was Spanish
Decreasing test bias
Relationship with kid, feedback to kid, focus on process not always answer
Behaviorism
Parents reinforce sounds, shape behaviors, learning environment, nurture
Chomsky
LAD, universal grammar/rules
Interactionists
Social part, not as hard wired as LAD, primed for language
comprehension
First in semantic development
Receptive Language
What is heard, taken in
Expressive Language
Production
Expressive Style
Social parts of language - hi/bye, thanks
Referential Style
Labeling, not many verbs or adjectives
Joint Attention
Paying attention to the same object, commenting on it
Illocutionary Intent
Knowing what the intent is, figuring it out - subtle
Referential Communication Skills
Understanding the needs of your listener
Speech Registers
Adapt communication to situation/people/context
Object Permanence
Child has a mental representation of something, even if it is not within sight
Pre-Operational Thought
Age 2-7 years, kids hold more representation, think more logically, lots of make believe play
Centration
Focusing on one dimension or concept (not understanding that a mother can also be someone's sister, etc.)
Concrete Operational Thoughts
School aged 7-11 - centration, reversibility, conservation, hierarchial classification, etc.
Formal Operational Thought
(11 and up) - abstract concepts, theoretical things, higher level thinking, hypothetico-deductive reasoning, possible vs. reality
Vogotsky
Social learning, acts upon child, language drives change in thought, language most important
private speech
talking to yourself, not meant to communication

Piaget - egocentrism
Vygotsky - guiding self through things
Zone of Proximal Development
There is a time when we get into a place and can do certain things with assistance, but not alone
Automaticity
How much effort you have to expend on something
Piaget
Studying his own kids; typical development, individual differences, mechanism of change; stage theory
Constructivist Approach
Building a body of language, experiencing the world
Stage Theory
Children tend to do things earlier than Piaget thought, stages, people can help things along, stages are universal, always in the same order
Schemas
A way of making sense of something, organizing it, putting it into categories - changes with age and experiences
Adaptation
Information from new experiences in the environment changes a schema
Assimilation
Adding new information to an existing schema
Accomodation
Completely new idea in a schema, exceptions to the rule
Environmental Cumulative Deficit Hypothesis
A view that attributes the age-related decline in IQ among ethnic minority and other children who live in poverty to the cumulative effcts of underprivileged rearing conditions
Cognitive inhibition
The ability to control internal and external distracting stimilu, preventing them from capturing attention and cluttering working memory with irrelevant information
ADHD
Attention Defecit Hyperactivity Disorder, learning disability, trouble in school, with relationships, scattered thinking
Overextension
Word is applied too broadly, to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate
Overregularization
Application of regular grammatical rules to words that are exceptions
Recast
Adult responses that restructure a child's grammatically incorrect speech into correct form
Kinship studies
Compare the characteristics of family members
Convergent Thinking
Generalization of a single correct answer to a problem, emphasized on intelligence tests
Divergent Thinking
The generaion of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem, associated with creativity