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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Scientific study of human development
The science that seeks to understand the ways in which people change and remain the same as they grow older.
linear change
a process in which a change occurs in a gradual,regular,predictable sequence.
dynamic systems
a process of continual change within a persons or group, in which each change is connected systematically to every other development in each individual and every society
butterfly effect
the idea that a small action or event (such as the breeze created by the flap of a butterfly wings) may set off a series of changes that culminate in a major event (such as a hurricane).
life-span perspective
a view of human development that takes into account all phases of life not just childhood or adulthood.
a characteristic of development, referring to its nonlinear progression-gains and losses, compensation and deficits, predictable and unexpected change.
a char. of development referring to the fact that each human life takes place within a number of contexts-historical, cultural, and socioeconomic.
a char. of devel. which takes place within many cultural settings worldwide and thus reflects a multitude of values, traditions, and tools for living.
a characteristic of development encompassing the idea that dozens of academic disciplines contribute data and insight to the science of development.
a characteristic of development that indicates that individuals-including their personalities as well as their bodies and minds-change throughout the life span.
biosocial domain
the realm of the brain and body as well as changes in our biological selves and in the social influences that direct our physical growth.
cognitive domain
our thought processes, perceptual abilities, and language mastery, as well as the educational instit.. that encourage our intellectual growth.
psychosocial domain
our emotions, personality, and interpersonal relationships with family, friends, and the wider community.
a group of people whose shared birth year, or decade means that they travel through life together experiencing the same historical changes.
social construction
an idea that is built more on shared perceptions of social order than on objective reality.
the specific manifestations of a social groups design for living, developed over the years to provide a social structure for the group members life together
socioeconomic status (SES)
an indicator of a persons social and economic standing, measured through comb. of family income, education level, place of residence,occupation, and other variables.
poverty line
the min. annual income a family needs to pay for basic necessities.
ethnic group
a collection of people who share certain attributes most always including ancestral heritage and often including national origin,religion,customs and language
socially constructed by which biological traits are used to differentiate people whose ancestors come from various regions of the world
scientific method
an approach to the systematic pursuit of knowledge. Involves 5 basic steps
1. Formulate a question
2. Develop a hypothesis
3. Test the hypothesis
4 Draw a conclusion
5. Make finds available
a specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted
the repetition of scientific study, using the same procedures on another group of subjects, to verify or refute the original studies conclusion
scientific observation
a method of testing hypotheses by unobtrusively watching and recording subjects' behavior either in a laboratory or in a natural setting
the qualities that may differ or vary during scientific investigation
a number indicating the degree of relationship between two variables.
a research method to try to untangle the cause from the effect
independent variable
in an experiment, the variable that is introduced or changed to see what effect it has on the dependent variable
dependent variable
in an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of the intro. or changes made in the independent variable.
experimental group
the subjects given treatment
comparison group
the subjects not given treatment, but are similar to the experiment group
research method-info. is collected from large group of people by personal interview,questionnaire,or other.
case study
a research method in which one individual is studied intensively
cross-sectional research
groups of people who differ in age but share other important char. are compared
longitudinal research
same individuals are studied over a long period of time
cross-sequential research
hybrid research method, researchers first study several groups of people of different ages and then follow those groups over years
code of ethics
a set of moral principals that is formally adopted by a group or organization.
developmental theory
a systematic statement of principals and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for studying and explaining development
grand theories
comprehensive theories that have traditionally inspired and directed thinking about development.
mini theories
theories that focus on some specific areas of development but are less general and comprehensive than the grand theories
emergent theories
recently formulated theories that bring together information from many mini theories but that have not yet cohered into theories that are comprehensive and systematic
psychoanalytic theory
a grand theory of human devel. that holds that irrational,unconscious drives and motives, many of which originate in childhood,underlie human behavior
a grand theory that focuses on the sequences and process by which behavior is learned
according to behaviorism, any process in which a behavior is learned.
classical conditioning
the process by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus so that the organism responds to the former stimulus as if it were the latter
operant condition
the process by which a response is gradually learned via reinforcement or punishment
the process by which a behavior is followed by results that make it more likely that the behavior will be repeated.
social learning theory
an application of behaviorism that emphasizes that many human behaviors are learned through observation and limitation of other people
in social learning theory, the process in which people observe and then copy the behavior of others.
in social learning theory, the belief that one is effective; self-efficacy motivates people to change themselves and their contexts
cognitive theory
a grand theory of human development that focuses on the structure and devl. of thinking, which shapes peoples attitudes,beliefs and behaviors
cognitive equilibrium
the state of mental balance that enables a person to reconcile new experienced with existing understanding
sociocultural theory
an emergent theory that holds that human development results from the dynamic interaction between person and the surrounding culture, including all the social forces, near and distant, that affects that person
apprenticeship in thinking
in sociocultural theory, the process by which novices develop cognitive competencies through interaction with more skilled members of the society, often parents and teachers.
guided participation
in sociocultural theory, the process by which a skilled person helps a novice learn by providing not only instruction but also a direct, shared involvement in the learning process.
zone of proximal devel.
the range of skills that a learner can exercise and master with assistance but cannot yet perform independently. According to Vygotsky, learning can occur within this zone
epigenetic system theory
emphasizes the interaction of genes and environment.
selective adaption
the idea that humans and other animal gradually adjust to their environment, specifically the process by which the frequency of particular genetic traits in a pop. increases and other decrease over generations.
the study of pattern of animal behavior particularly as that behavior relates to evolutionary orgins and species survial
term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception. Refering only to genes
term for the environmental influences that affect develop. after an individual is conceived. nurture includes prenatal environment as well as the ecosystem.
eclectic perspective
the approach taken by most develop-mentalist, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of devel. rather than adhering exclusively to one theory