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25 Cards in this Set
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Absolute zero

The zero point on the Kelvin scale, 0 K, or absolute zero, is equal to 273.15ºC. For problems in this text, you can round 273.15ºC to 273ºC.


Accepted value

You probably know the difference between the accepted value of the boiling point of pure water under these conditions is actually 100.0ºC. There is a difference between the accepted value, which is the correct value based on reliable references , and the experimental value, the value measured in the lab.


Accuracy

Correctness and reproducibility relate to the concepts of accuracy and precision. Accuracy is a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or series of measurements are to one another.


Calorie

The joule and the calorie are common units of energy. One calorie is the quantity of heat that raises the temperature of 1 g of pure water by 1ºC.


Celsius Scale

The Celsius scale is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. The Celsius scale sets the freezing point of water at 0ºC and the boiling point of water 100ºC.


Conversion Factor

A ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert a quantity from one unit to another. The ratios 100 cm/ 1 m and 1 m/100 cm are examples of conversion factores.


Density

Density is an intensive property that depends only on the composition of a substance, not on the size of the sample. With a mixture, density can vary because the composition of a mixture can vary.


Dimensional Analysis

No single method is best for solving every type of problem. Dimensional analysis is a way to analyze and solve problems using units, or dimensions of the measurements.


Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work or to produce heat. Solar panels convert the radiant energy from the sun into electrical energy that can be used to heat water and power appliances


Error

The difference between the accepted value and the experimental value is called error. Error= experimental valueaccepted value.


Experimental Value

A quantitative value measured during an experiment. Experimental value differs from the accepted value.


Gram (g)

A metric mass unit equal to the mass of 1 cm3 of water at 4ºC. A gram is 1/100 of a kilogram.


International system of units

The revised version of the metric system, adopted by international agreement in 1960. The five base SI base units commonly used by chemists are the meter, the kilogram, the Kelvin, the second, and the mole.


Joule

The SI unit of energy; 4.184 J equal one calorie. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule.


Kelvin Scale

The temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 273 K an the boiling point is 373 K; 0 K is absolute zero. Within the Kelvin scale, the degree sign is not used.


Kilogram (kg)

The mass of 1 L of water at 4ºC; it is the base unit of mass in SI. The mass of an object is measured in comparison to a standard mass of 1 Kilogram.


Liter (L)

The volume of a cube measuring 10 centimeters on each edge (1000 cm3). It is the common unprefixed unit of volume in the metric system.


Measurement

A quantitative description that includes both number and unit. Measurements are fundamental to the experimental sciences.


Meter

The base unit of length in SI. All measurements of length cane be expressed in meters.


Percent error

The percent that a measured value differs from the accepted value. It is the absolute value of the error divided by the accepted value, multiplied by 100%.


Precision

Describes the closeness, or reproducibility, of a set of measurements taken under the same conditions. It is a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another.


Scientific Notation

An expression of numbers in the form m * 10N, where M is equal or greater than 1 and less than 10, and N is an integer. It’s a given number that is written as a product of two numbers: a coefficient and 10 raised to a power.


Significant Figures

All the digits that can be known precisely in a measurement, plus a last estimated digit. Calculators often depend on the number of significant figures in the values used in the calculation.


Temperature

A measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in matter; temperature determines the direction of heat transfer. It is a measure of how hot or cold and object is.


Weight

A force that measures the pull of gravity on a given mass. IT is a measure of force, which is different from mass, which is a measure of the quantity of matter.
