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48 Cards in this Set

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A solution forms when...
One substance evently disperses through another
Which of the intermolecular forces can operate between the solute and solvent particles in a solution?
All of them.
What is a major factor in the formation of the solution?
The relative strength of intermolecular forces
Solutions form when the intermolecular forces between the solute-solvent particles are comparable to...
To those that exist between the solute particles themselves and the solvent particles themselves
What is solvation?
The clustering of solvent particles around a solute particle
What is hydration?
When the solvent in solvation is water
Processes in which the energy of the system decreases tend to occur...
Spontaneously.
Are spontaneous processes generally endothermic or exothermic?
Exothermic.
What is enthropy?
The thermodynamic process that measures disorder in a system
Processin which a system increases in randomness tend to be spontaneous if...
They occur at a constant temperature
What are the two processes that are factors in the solution process?
Changes in enthalpy and entropy
Formation of solutions is favored by the increase in entropy that accompanies...
Mixing!
What relative forces will cause a solution to not form?
Solute-solute interactions or solvent-solvent interactions are too strong relative to solvent-solute interactions
What does it mean for a substance to be saturated?
As a solute begins to dissolve in a solvent the chances of the solute particle colliding with the surface of the solute and rejoining (crystalization) increases. When the process of dissolving and rejoining are equal, the solution is said to have come to equilibrium.
What is the solubility?
The amount of solute needed to form a saturated solution in a given quantity of solvent
What does it mean for a solution to be undersaturated?
It means there is less solute than needed for the solution to be saturated.
what does it mean for a solution to be supersaturated?
It means there is more solute than needed for the soltion to be saturated.
Stronger attractions between the solute and solvent molecules tend to make what greater?
The solubility.
Polar liquids tend to dissolve quickly in...
Polar solvents
Are nonpolar liquids soluble in polar liquids?
No.
Increasing the number of polar groups a substance contains will do what to the solubility?
Enhance it.
Do substances with similar molecular forces tend to be soluble in each other?
Yes.
The solubility of a gas increases in direct proportion to...
It's partial pressure above the solution
What law describes the relationship between gas and pressure?
Henry's Law
The solubility of most solid substances in water ________ as teh temperature increases
Increases.
The solubility of most gas substances in water ________ as the temperature increases
Decreases
What are the qualitative ways of expressing cncentration?
Dilute and Concentrated
What are colligative properties?
the properties that depend on the quantity of the solution but not the kind/type
What are some examples of colligative properties?
Melting point, freezing point, vapor pressure, osmotic pressure
What is vapor pressure?
The pressure exerted by a vapor when it reaches equilibrium with a liquid in a closed container
What is a nonvolatile substance?
A substance with no notable vapor pressure
What is a volatile substance?
A substance with a notable vapor pressure
what does adding a nonvolatile solute into a solvent do?
Lower the vapor pressure.
What is Raoult's law?
The partial pressure exerted by solven vapor above a solution equals the product of the mole fraction of the solvent in the solution times the vapor pressure of pure solvent
What is an ideal solution?
One that obeys Raoult's law
The boiling point of a solution is ________ than that of a pure liquid.
Higher
The freezing point of a solution is _______ than that of a pure liquid
Lower
What is osmosis?
The net movement of solvent molecules from the less concentrated solution into the more concentrated solution
What is osmotic pressure?
The amount of pressure needed to prevent osmosis by a pure solvent
What does it mean if two solutions are isotonic?
They have the same osmotic pressure
What does it mean if a solution is hypotonic?
It has a lower osmotic pressure with respect to the more concentrated solution
What does it mean if a solution is more hypertonic?
It has a higher osmotic pressure with respect to the less concentrated solution
What is active transport?
A cell moving something from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
What is crenation?
The shriveling of a cell in hypotonic solution
What is hemolysis?
The exploding of a (blood) cell in a hypertonic solution
What is a colloid?
Mixtures containing particles larer than norma solutes but small enough to remain suspended in dispersing medium
What is the Tyndall effect?
The scattering of light by colloid particles
How can you stablize a hydrophobic colloid?
Adding ions to their surface via adsorption