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 the particles that make up different gases are not the same size early scientists recognized that there must be such size differences and assumed that collections of larger molecules must have larger volumes that collections of an equal number of small molecules Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles Avogadro's hypothesis Avogadro's hypothesis isn't so mysterious if you consider that the particles in a gas are very far apart a collection of relatively large particles does not require much more space than the same numer of relatively small particles Equal numbers of particles of different gases in equal volumes at the same temperature should exert the same pressure because the particles have the same average kinetic ernergy and are contained within equal volumes whenever you have equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure, the volumes should contain equal numbers of particles the particles in a gas mixture at the same temperature have the same average kinetic energy gas pressure depends only on the number of gas particles in a given volume and on their average kinetic energy the contribution each gas in a mixture makes to the total pressure is called the partial pressure exerted by that gas Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3... Dalton's law of partial pressures at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases Dalton's law of partial pressures the fractional contribution to pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture does not change as the temperature, pressure, or volume changes the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout diffusion most of the early work on diffusion was done in the 1840s by the Scottish chemist Thomas Graham Graham measured the rates of effusion the process in which a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container effusion graham noticed that the gases of lower molar mass effuse _____ than the gases of higher molar mass faster The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas's molar mass Graham's law of effusion the diffusion of a gas is also inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass if two bodies of different masses have the same kinetic energy, the lighter body must move faster the particles of two different gases at the same temperature have the same average kinetic energy a gas particle of low mass should move ____ than a gas particle of high mass if the gases are at the same temperature faster the gas of lower molar mass should therefore diffuse and effuse faster RateA/RateB = sr molar mass B/ sr molar mass A graham's law