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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the particles that make up different gases are not the
same size
early scientists recognized that there must be such size differences and assumed that collections of larger molecules must have larger volumes that collections of an
equal number of small molecules
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
Avogadro's hypothesis
Avogadro's hypothesis isn't so mysterious if you consider that
the particles in a gas are very far apart
a collection of relatively large particles does not require much more space than
the same numer of relatively small particles
Equal numbers of particles of different gases in equal volumes at the same temperature should exert the same pressure because
the particles have the same average kinetic ernergy and are contained within equal volumes
whenever you have equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure, the volumes should
contain equal numbers of particles
the particles in a gas mixture at the same temperature have the same
average kinetic energy
gas pressure depends only on the number of
gas particles in a given volume and on their average kinetic energy
the contribution each gas in a mixture makes to the total pressure is called the
partial pressure exerted by that gas
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3...
Dalton's law of partial pressures
at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
Dalton's law of partial pressures
the fractional contribution to pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture does not change as
the temperature, pressure, or volume changes
the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout
diffusion
most of the early work on diffusion was done in the 1840s by the Scottish chemist
Thomas Graham
Graham measured the rates of
effusion
the process in which a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container
effusion
graham noticed that the gases of lower molar mass effuse _____ than the gases of higher molar mass
faster
The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas's molar mass
Graham's law of effusion
the diffusion of a gas is also inversely proportional to the
square root of its molar mass
if two bodies of different masses have the same kinetic energy, the lighter body must move
faster
the particles of two different gases at the same temperature have the
same average kinetic energy
a gas particle of low mass should move ____ than a gas particle of high mass if the gases are at the same temperature
faster
the gas of lower molar mass should therefore diffuse and effuse
faster
RateA/RateB =

sr molar mass B/
sr molar mass A
graham's law