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17 Cards in this Set

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solvation (dissolution)
clustering of solvent molecule around a solute particle

when water is solvent, it is called hydration
miscible
capable of mixing in all propotion
mole fraction
X=mole of component/total moles of all components
sum of mole fraction in sys
is 1


Xwater +Xglyceral =1
molality (m)
mole of solute/kilogram of solvent
liter of water =
1kg of water
Molarity (M)
mole of solute/liters of solution
Normality
#of equalvalent of solute per liter of solution

for 2M of H3PO4
N= 2M*3N/M = 6N
dilution
MiVi =MfVf

#mole does not change, volume of solution and concentration change
dilute
solute <solvent
concentration
solute>solvent
colligative property
depends on the number of dissoved particle in the solution but not on their chemical identity of nature
vapor pressure depression
Psoln =Xsolvent*Psolvent

if solute A is added to a pure solvent B the vapor pressure above the solvent decrease, the more particle dissolve in a solvent, lower the vapor pressure

does not matter what you addif it dec mole fraction of solvent it will depress the V.P
Freesig point depression
dTf=Kfm

Kf=1.86C/m for H2O
m=molality

adding solute also lower freezing pint b/c solute molecule interrupt the rodered crytal structure of the solid phase
boiling point of elevation
dTb = Kbm
Kb=constant

temp at which vapor pressure exceeds ambient pressure

adding solute lowers the vapor pressure higher temp is needed to raise the vapor pressure cause the solution to boil.
# of particle inc =
vapor pressure dec =low temp
thus high temp is needed to raise vapor pressure
Osmotic pressure
=MRT