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37 Cards in this Set

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arrhenius acid
only aqueous solution

produce H in an aqueous solution, proton donoer
arrhenius base
only aqueous solution

produce OH-
Hydroxide ion donor
Bronsted-Lowry acid
donate proton
Bronsted-Lowry base
accepts proton
lewis acid
lectron pair acceptor
electrophile
lewis base
electron pair donnor
nucleophile
amphoteric
can act as either base or acid

H2O
The sronger the acid the () its conjugate base
weaker
Kw
eq constant for ionization of water

Kw=[H3O+][OH-]=10^-14 at 25C
pH
-log[H3O] = -log[H+]
=log (1/[H+])
pOH
-log[OH-] =log(1/[H+])
if [H+] =1x10^-3 then ph is
3
strong acid and base
sissociate completely into component ions in solution
strong acid is
strong electrolyte
HClO4
strong acid
HNO3
strong acid
H2SO4
strong acid
HCl
strong acid
HBr
strong acid
HI
strong acid
NaOH
strong base
KOH
strong base
other soluble hydroxides of group 1A and 2A
strong base
weaker acid and base
do not ionize completely
weak electrolyte
Ka (Kb)
equilibrium constant for acid ionization
measure of the degree to which an acid dissociates

weaker the acid lower the Ka

Ka= conc product /reactant does not contain pure liq or sol
neuralization rxn
acid and base react to form salt and often water
titration
the addition of a solution of known concentration and volume to another solution to determine its unknown concentration

determine the Molarity of an acid or base

VaMa =VbMb or VaCa=VbCb

C=concentration
equivalalence point
point at which the amt of acid equals the amt of base

located at the center of the stepest region on the tiration curve
titration of polyprotic acid
more than one equivalence point
Normality (N)
is always equal to the whole number multiple of molarity

equivalent of an acid is the quantity that can supply 1 mole of proton

1M H2SO4 =2N
buffer solution
consists of a mixture of weak acid and its salt (conjugate base) or mixture of weak base and its salt (conjugate acid)

resist pH change when small amoutns of acids or base are added
Henderson-hasselbach equation
PH=PKa+log ([conju base]/[weak acid])

POH = pKb + log([conju acid]/[weak base])

when [cojugate base]=[conjugate acid]
PH=Pka bc log 1=0

estimate the ph of a solution in the fugger region where the concentration of the species and its conjugate are present in approximately equal concentration
CN-
stong base
NH2-
strong base
nutralization use
normality

N1V1 = N2V2
dilution use
use before and after
more acidic ph? ka? pka?
how ph
high ka
low pka