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### 35 Cards in this Set

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 first of thermodynamics expression of the universal law of conservation of energy, and identifies heat transfer as a form of energy transfer. The increase in the internal energy of a thermodynamic system is equal to the amount of heat energy added to the system minus the work done by the system on the surroundings. dU = Q-W du = inc in the internal enery of system by James Prescott Joule endothermic absorb heat from warmer sys to cooler system exothermic release heat from warmer sys to cooler system heat q= mcT(f-i) c=specific heat measured in the same unit as energy (calories or joules) entropy (S) measure of the disorder or randomness of a system greater the disorder = inc in entropy state function Dealta S = Sfinal - Sinitial entropy btw phases gas>liquid>solid delta S (state function) dealta S = q/T q = heat added to a sys Second law of thermodynamics all spontaneous processesin an isolated system lead to inc in entropy delta S universe = delta Ssys + delta Ssurrounding >0 Enthalpy (H) heat content of a system heat change at constant P delta H = Activation E foward - activation E reverse =Eproduct -Ereactant =Hproduct-Hreactant equal to the heat absorbed or evolved by the systme at constant P delta H = + endothermic delta H = - exothermic standard heat of formation delta Hf at STP (1atm, 273K) standard head of rxn the hypotheical enthalpy change that would occur if the exn were carried out under standard conditions =(sum of del Hf of product) - (sum of del Hf of reactant) Hess law states that if rxn can be broken down into a series of steps the enthahpy change for the overall net reaction is just the sum of the enthalpies ofeach step bond dissociation energy average of the engergy required to break a particular type of bond in one mole of gaseous molecules deltal H rxn = (H of vond broken)+(H of bonds formed or = energy input - energy output Gibbs Free Energy (G) =dH-TdS describe overall spontaneity of a exn represents maximum energy of enery released by a process occuring at STP dG = - rxn is spontaneous dG = + rxn is not spontaneous dG = 0 equalibrium and dH=TdS dH = - dS = + spontaneous at all temp dH = + dS = - nonspontaneous at all temp dH = + dS = + spontaneous only at high temp dH = - dS = - spontaneous at low temp dGrxn = (sum of dGf of product)- (sum of dGf of reactant) conduction heat transfered directly through vibration of atoms and molecule of materials radiation E transfered via electromagnetic waves no medium, occur in vaccum convection transfered by the bulk movement of fluids, known as convection current warm air rise and cool air falls due to difference in density when system can't exchange energy or matter with the surrounding as with an insulated bomb reactor isolated system when system cannot exchange energy but not matter with the surrounding, as with steam radiator closed system when syste can exchange both matter and energy with the surrounding as with pot of boiling water open system isothermal constant temp adiabatic no heat exchange occur isobaric pressure of the system remains constant