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25 Cards in this Set

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Ionic bonding
between metal and nonmetal

involve transfer of e-

electron in the bond leave one atom (cation) and are held by anion
Covalent Bonding
btw nonmetals

sharing of e-
-equally
-nonequally (polar)
metallic bonds
occur in transition metal atoms.

electron are spread out through entire material
"sea of electron"
van der waals bonds
weak intermolecular forces

aka london dispersion force
hydrogen bond
occurs when hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly electronegative atom (FON) interacts with the electronegative atom on another molecule
intermolecular and intramolecular bond
intramolecular bond
-ionic, covalent, metallic

interamolecular bond
-van der waals
-hydrogen bonding
exception to octet rule
P, Se, Br more than 8 valence e-
incomeplete octet
H, Be, B
resonance structure
more than one lewis representation due to delocalized e-

lewis structure with smallor no formal charge is prefered ovwer a lweis structure w/ large formal charge

negative formal charge placed on more electronegative atom is more stable than one in which the charge are placed on less electronegative atoms
formal charge
Valence E -[1/2 #bonding e + # nonbonding e]
VSEPR
valence shell electron-pair repulsion theory

arrangement of atos or groups around the central atom is determined by the repulsions btw the e- pairs in the valence shell of central atom

lone pairs do participate in the repulson but they do not in overall naming process

lone pair act as bonds in repulsion but the fact that they are nonbonding makes their repulsion stronger than bonding pair
SP
2 e-
liner
180
SP2
3 e-
trigonal planer
120
SP3
4e- (1 lone pair)
trigonal pyramid
107

4 e- (0 lone pair)
tetrahedral
109
SP3d
5 e- (0 lone pair)
trigonal bipyramid
90,120, 180

5e- (1lone pair)
see saw
90 120 180

5e[ (2lone pair)
T shape
90 18-

5e- (3lonepair)
linear
180
SP3d2
6 e- (0 lone pair)
octahedral
90 180

6e- (1lonepair)
planar pyramid
90 180

6e- (2 lone pair)
square pyramid
90 180
compare bond distance btw single, double, triple
triple<double<single
compare bond enerey btw single, double, triple
single<double<triple
paramagnetic does what to magnetic field?
drawn weakly to magnatic field

paramagnetic compound has odd number of valence electron
NO (5+6=11)
draw lewis structure of the most likely ions of elementsfrom Na to Ca
Na+ Ma2+, Al3+, Si4+,
P3-, S2-, Cl-, Ar
K+, Ca 2+

nonmetal starting P gain e-
steps in drawing lewis structure
1. find how many e- you have
2. find how many u need (must satisfy octet)
3. subtract (need-has) e-
4. divide by 2 and get how many bonds

5. finally check for the formal charge. no formal chage is the best structure and then - F.C on more electronegative atoms.
arrange the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point

C2H6, CH3OH, LiF, HCL
C2H6<HCL<CH3OH<LiF

C2H6-vander waals

HCl-dipole

CH3OH-Hbondig

LiF-Ionic
electronic geometry
position of all electron both bonding and nonbonding

angle of e- consider electron geometry
molecular geometry
position of nuclie

name of shape like bent

only consider molecular geometry
bond dipole vs molecular dipole
molecular dipole depends on bond dipole and molecular geometry of all bonding pairs