Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/236

Click to flip

236 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chemistry
study of science that deals with matter
matter
has mass and takes up space
chemical change
AKA chemical reaction
Chemical properties
the chemical reaction a substance overgoes
physical properties
properties that do not involve chemical reactions
scientific method
tool, testing theories
fact
statement based on direct experience
hypothesis
statement proposed to explain facts and relationships
theory
the formulation of apparent relationships among certain observed phenomenon
serendipity
chance observations leading to discoveries
significant figures
see Appendix II
Length
5280 ft
one mile
Length
1760 yds
one mile
Length
3 ft
1 yd
Length
12 "
1 ft
length
1 KM
1000 M
1 cm
.01 M
Metric prefixes
giga G
10e9, 1 billion
Metric prefixes
Mega M
10e6, 1 million
Metric prefixes
Kilo K
10e3, 1000
Metric prefixes
deci d
10e-1, .1 or 1/10
Metric prefixes
centi c
10e-2, .01 or 1/100
Metric prefixes
milli m
10e-3, 001 1/1000
Metric prefixes
micro
10e-6, .000001 1/1 million
Metric prefixes
nano, n
10e-9, .000000001 1/1 billion
Conversion factors
Length
1 in =
2.54 cm
Conversion factors
Length
1 meter
39.37 in
Conversion factors
Length
1 mile
1,609 km
Conversion factors
Mass
1 oz
28.35 g
Conversion factors
Mass
1 lb
453.6 g
Conversion factors
mass
1 kg
2.206 lb
Conversion factors
mass
1 g
15.43 grains
Conversion factors
Volume
1 qt
0.946 L
Conversion factors
Volume
1 gal
3.785 L
Conversion factors
Volume
1 L
33.81 fl oz
Conversion factors
Volume
1 fl oz
29.57 ml
Conversion factors
Volume
1 L
1.057 quart
1 ml
.001 L
100 ml
1 L
1 ml
1 cc
1000 cc
1 L
1 kg
1000 g
1 mg
.001 g
Temp
F
9/5 degrees C + 32
Temp
C
5/9 (degrees F -32)
ex: 5/9 (98.6-32) = 5/9 (66.6)= 37.0 degrees C
Factor Label Method
when multiplying/dividing numbers we also multiply/divide units
denisity
d = m/v
ex: 61.5 g/73.2 ml = .84 g/ml
specific gravity
dimensionless - defined as conparison of the denisty of a substance with the density of H20
energy
capacity to do work
kinetic energy
energy of motion; any moving object
potential energy
stored energy
Law of Conservation of energy
energy can't be created or destroyed
Heat
form of energy (temperature is not); measured in calories
1 Kilocalorie = 1000 cal = 1 Kcal
1 cal =
4.184 J
specific heat
amount of heat necessary to raise 1 g of any substance by 1 degree C
element
substance consisting of identical atoms; 116 known, 88 occur in nature
compound
pure substance made up of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio by mass; 20 M known compounds
mixture
combination of 2 or more pure substances
atoms
make up all matter
molecule
combination of 2 or more atoms that act as a single unit
Law of Conservation of Mass
any compound is always made up of elements in the same proportion by mass
monatomic elements
single atoms not connected to each other
diatomic elements
H2, N2, F2, CL2, BR2, I2
polyatomic elements
diamonds; S8
Proton
subatomic particle with charge of +1 and a mass of approximately 1 amu, found in neucleus
amu
1 amu = 6.605 x 1-e-24 g; 1/2 the mass of a carbon atom containing 6 protons and 6 neutrons
electron
subatomic particle with charge of -1 and mass of approximately .0005 amu
neutron
subatomic particle with mass of approximately 1 amu and charge of 0; found in neucleus
mass number
number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
isotopes
same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons; differ in radioactivity properties
atomic weight
weighted average of the masses (in amu) of its isotopes found on earth
properties of metals
solid (except mercury)
shiny
conduct electricity
malleable
alloys
solutions of 1 or more metals dissolved in another metal
non-metals
don't conduct electricity
mettaloids
boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium
halogens
melting/boiling points increase as we go down the column
alkali
group 1A; can be cut with a knife
noble gases
group 8A
ground state electron configuration
electron configuration of the lowest energy state of an atom
Distribution of electrons in Shells
Shell 4
Shell can hold 32 electrons, subshell s
Distribution of electrons in Shells
shell 3
can hold 18 electrons, subshell p
Distribution of electrons in Shells
shell 2
can hold 8 electrons, subshell d
Distribution of electrons in Shells
shell 1
can hold 2 electrons, subshell f
electron configuration
description of the orbitals of an atom or ion occupied by electrons
valence electron
an electron in the outermost occupied (valence) shell of an atom
valence shell
the outermost occupied shell of an atom
Lewis Dot Structure
the symbol of the element surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in their outer shell
He and Ne - (noble gases)
have filled valence shells
Electrons in Periodic Table
elements in same column have the same configuration of electrons in their outer shell
2 kinds of chemical bonds
ionic and covalent
octet rule
groups 1A - 7A - gains/loses or shares electrons to have 8 in the valence shell in chemical reaction - doesn't apply to 1B - 7B
anion
negatively charged ion
cation
positively charged ion
monatonic cations:
Cu+
Cuprous ion; Copper (I) ion
monatonic cations:
Cu2+
Cupric ion; copper (II) ion
monatonic cations:
Fe 2+
Ferrous ion; Iron (II) ion
monatonic cations:
Fe 3+
Ferric ion; Iron (III) ion
monatonic cations:
Hg+
Mercuric ion; Mercuey (II) ion
monatonic cations:
Sn2+
Stannic ion; Tin (ii) ion
Monatomic anions:
F-
fluoride
Monatomic anions:
Cl-
Chloride
Monatomic anions:
Br-
Bromide
Monatomic anions:
I-
Iodide
Monatomic anions:
O2-
Oxide
Monatomic anions:
S 2-
Sulfide
Polyatomic ions (Common):
NH+
ammonium
Polyatomic ions (Common):OH4-
Hydroxide
Polyatomic ions (Common):NO2
Nitrite
Polyatomic ions (Common):N03 2-
Nitrate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
CH3 Coo-
acetate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
CN-
cyanide
Polyatomic ions (Common):MnO4-
Permanganate
Polyatomic ions (Common):CrO4 -2
chromate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
CO3 2-
carbonate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
HCO 3 -
hydrogen carbonate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
SO3 2-
sulfite
Polyatomic ions (Common):
HSO 3 -
Hydrogen sulfite
Polyatomic ions (Common):
SO4 2-
Sulfate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
HSO 4-
hydrogen sulfate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
PO4 2-
phosphate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
HPO4 2-
hydrogen phosphate
Polyatomic ions (Common):
H2 PO4 -
dihydrogen phosphate
ionic bond
results from attraction between cation and anion
covalent bond
results from attraction between 2 atoms that share on or more pairs of electrons
How to tell if ionic or covalent bond?
ionic - usually forms between metal and non metal
covalent - usually forms between nonmetal/metalloid and nonmetal combine;
compare electronegativity
electronegativity
measure of an atom's attraction for the electrons it shares in a chemical bond with another atom
How does ionic bond form?
forms by transfer of 1 or mroe valence shell electrons from an atom of lower electr4onegativity to valence shell of an atom of higher electronegativity; more likely to occur if difference in electronegativity between 2 atoms is 1.9 or greater' covalent <1.9
ionic compound
formed by combination of + and - ions
Predicting formulas of ionic compounds
sum of ions and sum of + charges = sum of negative charges; subscripts represent ratio of the ions
Naming Ionic compounds
binary compound -
contains only 2 elements
Naming Ionic compounds
binary ionic compound
consists of name of metal (+ ion - cation) was formed, followed by name of anion (- ion; ignor subscripts in binary ionic compound naming
How does covalent bond form?
forms when electron bonds are shared between 2 atoms whose difference in electronegativity is < 1.9 (2 nonmetals or between nonmetal & metalloid)
single bond
sharing a pari of electrons (represented by a single line ex: H-H
Chemical Bond Classification:
<.5
Non-polar covalent - 2 non metals or a metal and a nonmetal
Chemical Bond Classification:
0.5 to 1.9
polar covalent; 2 non-metals or nonmetal & metalloid
Chemical Bond Classification:
>1.9
Ionic; a metal and a nonmetal
bonding electrons
valence elctrons involved in forming a covalent bond (shared electrons)
non-bonding electrons
valence elctrons not involved in forming covalent bonds (unshared electrons)
Lewis structure
formula for a molecule or ion showing all pairs of bonding electrons as single, double or triple bonds and all nonbonded electtrons as pairs of Lewis dots
Structural formula
formula showing how atoms in a molecule or ion were bonded to each other; similar to Leis structure expect shows only bonding pairs of electrons
naming binary covalent compounds
2 element compound with all covalent bonds:
1) name the less electronegative element (1st in formula)
2) name the more elctronegative element and add ide to the stem name
3) use di, tri, tetra to show number of atoms of each element
How to predict bond angles (covalent molecules)
use VSEPR; atoms spread out so eacfh is as far as possible from the others
All H-C-H bond angles are
109.5
Methane bond angle
tetrahedral
water bond angle
bent
ammonia bond angle
pyramidal
ammonia molecule
pyramidal
formaldehyde & ethylene are
120 degrees - trigonal planar
carbon dioxide & acetylene
linear and 180 degrees
chemical reaction
chemical change; reactants converted into products
formula weight (FW)
sum of atomic weights in amu of all atoms in compound's formula
molecular weight
strictly correct only when used for covalent compounds
mole
amount of substance that contains as many atoms, molecules or ions as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of Carbon -12
Avogadro's number
6.02 x 10e23 formula units per mole
molar mass
FW of substance expressed in grams
combustion
burning in air
chemical equation
a representation using chemical formulas of the process that occurs when reactants are convered to products
balancing chemical equations
1 - start with C or H
2 - balance free elements last
3 - change only coefficients in balancing equation
actual yield
mass of product formed in chemical reaction
theoretical yield
mass of product that should form in a chemical reaction according to stoichimetry of the balanced equation
percent yield
actual yield divided by theoretical yield X 100
% yield = actual yield/theoretical yield X 100
dissociation -
dissolved in H2) and the + and - ions become separated by H20 molecules
aqueous solution
solution in which the solvent is H20
spectator ion
ion that appears unchanged on both sides of a chemical equation
net ionic equation
chemical equation that does not contain spectator ions (show only ions that react)
ions react only when
1 - 2 ions form a solid in soluble H20 (most common)
2 - 2 ions form a gas that escapes from the reaction mixture as bubbles
3 - one of the ions can oxidize another
4 - an acid neutralizes a base
most chlorides (Cl-) and sulfates (SO4 2-) are soluble in H20 (see back for exceptions)
silver chloride (AgCl), lead (II) chloride (PbCl2)mercury (I) chloride (Hg2Cl2), barium sulfate (BaSO4) and lead sulfate (PbSO4) - NOT SOLUBLE IN H20
Most carbonates (CO3 2-), phosphates (PO4 3-), sulfides (S 2-_and hydroxides (OH-_ are insoluble in H20
exeptions LiOH, NaOHI, KOH, and aqueous NH3 ARE soluble in H20
oxidation - reduction reaction
AKA redox reaction; transfer of electrons from 2 species to another
oxidizing agent
an entity that accepts electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction
reducing agent
an entity that donates electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction
oxidation
gain of oxygen and/or loss of hydrogen
reduction
loss of oxygen and/or gain of hydrogen
gas
molecules far apart and disorganized; little interaction
liquid
intermediate situation
solid
molecules close together and ordered; strong interaction between molecules
The number 12574.78 rounded to 3 significant figures will be
1.25 x 10e4
Which of the following changes is an example of a chemical change?
a - heating water
b - ice melting
c - cooking food
d - alcohol evaporating
e - condensing steam
c - cooking of food
When a strong magnet is brought near to a sample which is known to contain both iron and sulfur, the iron and sulfur are not separated from one another. Wha type of material is this sample?
a - a compound
b - a homogeneous mixture
c - a heterogeneous mixture
d - an element
a - a compound
A statement that is made to explain an observation is called
a - a hypothesis
b - a theory
c - a fact
d - a law
e - an equation
a hypothesis
Gasline is immiscible in water. The density of gasoline is 0.025 g/mL at 20 degrees C. When gasoline is added to water (denisty of water is 1.0 g/mL):
a - it will float on top
b - it will sink to the bottom
c - it will mix so you can't see it
d - the mixture will ijprove the running of the motor
c - none of these things will happen
it will float on top
A block of a material of mass 25 grams and volume of 1 cm3 is dropped in water. How much water would it displace?
a - 15 cc
b - 25 cc
c - 40 cc
d - 50 cc
15 cc
Which of the following elements is a halogen?
a - Ag
B - Br
c - B
d - N
e - Fe
Br
Which of the following postulates from Dalton's atomic theory are now known to be incorect?
i) matter is made up of atoms
ii) atoms are individisible and indestructible
iii) all atoms of a given element are identical
(ii) and (iii)
What is the name of the lement with a mass number 45 and 24 neutrons?
a - chromium
b - Scandium
c - Rhodium
D - Titanium
e - thulium
b - Scandium
The three common isotopes of hydrogen has
a - the same mass number and equal number of protons
b - the same atomic number and equal number of protons
c - the same atomic number and equal number of neutrons
d - the same mass number and equal number of electrons
e - the same mass number and equal number of protons
the same atomic number and equal number of protons
Which three elements are likely to have similar chemical and physical properties?
a nitrogen, oxygen, and neon
b. sodium, magnesium and alumininum
c. calcium, strontium and barium
d. nickel, copper and zinc
e. uranium, plutonium and americium
calcium, strontium and barium
Which of these is not a stable ion?
a. Ba+
b. Li+
c. Br-
d Se 2-
e. P3-
Ba+
Thelement aluminum is mostly likely to form which of these ions?
a. Al+
b. Al2+
c. Al3+
d. Al3-
e. Al5-
Al3+
A nitride ion has ____ electrons?
10
Vanadium (v) with 30 neutrons has an atomic number of ____ and _____ electrons. (V is a roman numeral)
23, 18
Elemments in which group are most likely o form ions with -3 charge?
Group I
Group II
Group II
Group IV
Group V
Group V
Which of the following pairs have the same number of electrons?
Cu2+ and Cu+
a2+ and Mg2+
Cl and Br-
F- and O2-
H+ and H-
F- and O2-
A good example of an ionic compound is
H20
C2H5OH
Dry ice solid Co2)
K2CO3
CH4
K2CO3
Which of the following pairs will form a polar covalent bond?Ca - CL
Cl - Cl
Mn - Cl
N - Cl
Ni - Cl
N - Cl
A battery stores chemical potential energy. Into what form of kinetic energy can this potntial energy be converted to play a radio?
a - thermal energy
b - electrical energy
c - radiant energy
d - electrostatic energy
e - mechanical energy
electrical energy
You an drive at a speed of 65 miles per hour whereas your spouse can drive at a speed of 35 meters per second. Explain with appropriate calculations who can drive faster.
65 mph = ? meters per second
65 mi/hr x 1.609 km/1 mi x 1000 mi/km x 1 hr/60 min x 1 min/60 sec = 29 meters/second
Spouse can drive faster at a speed of 35 meters per second
The temperature of Monday is 88 degrees F and that of Tuesday is 25 degrees C. Which day is hotter? Show your work
C = 5/9 (F-32)
c = 5/9 (88-32)
c = 5/9 (56)
c = 31 degrees
Tuesday is hotter
You can identify a metal by careful determining its density "d". An unknown piece of metal, wth a mass of 29.454 g, is 2.35 cm long, 1.34 cm wide, and 1.05 cm thick. Which of the following is the element?
Nickel, d = 8.91 g/cm3
Titanium, d = r.t0 g/cm3
Zinc, d = 7.14 g/cm3
Tin, d= 7.23 g/cm3
d = m/v
29.454 g/2.35 cm x 1.34 cm x 1.05 cm = 29.454/3.306.45 = 8.90804337 g/cm3
Complete the following. Show your work:
Protons = electrons
atomic # = # of protons
mass # - protons = neutrons
Compelte the formulas for the compounds formed and name each compound:

Fe 2+ and Br- =
FeBr2
Compelte the formulas for the compounds formed and name each compound:
Li+ and Br- =
LiBr
Compelte the formulas for the compounds formed and name each compound:
Li+ and O2- =
Li2O
Compelte the formulas for the compounds formed and name each compound:
Li+ and PO4 3- =
Li3PO4
Compelte the formulas for the compounds formed and name each compound:
Fe2+ and Br-
FeBr2
Compelte the formulas for the compounds formed and name each compound:
Fe2+ and O2-
FeO
Compelte the formulas for the compounds formed and name each compound:
Fe2+ and Po4 3-
Fe3 (PO4)2
Ferrous Phosphate
Compelte the formulas for the compounds formed and name each compound:
Al3+ and Br -
AlBr3
Aluminium bromide
Al3+ and O2-
Al2O3
aluminium oxide
Al3+ and PO4 3-
Al(PO4)
aluminum phosphate
A house is made of wood and glass. Assuming an equal amount of sunshine falls on a wooden wall and a piece of clean glass (of equal mass), which warms more? The specific heats of wood and glass are 1.76 J/g.K and 0.84 J/g.K respectively. Explain briefly.
Wood is used i home bulding as insulation from heat and cold which would indicate it does nto doncut heat or cold as well as glass. The specific heat required to raise 1 g of wood is 1.87J/g.K whereas it only takes 0.84J/g.K to raise the temperature of 1 g of glass. This means that glass warms much easier than wood To raise the temperature of wood one degree requires more energy than the glass.
The number 5 X 10e3 written in exponential notation, can be written in full as
a - .005
b - 0.05
c - 500
d - 5000
0.005
An example of a pure subsance is:
a - blood
b - salt
c - milk
d - air
salt
Which is a chemical change?
a - melting of snow
b - making tea from tea bag
c - distilling ocean water
d - dropping alka seltzer tablet in water
dropping alka seltzer tablet in water
The density of gsoline is 0.7025 g/mL at 20 degrees C. When gasoline is added to water denisty of water is 1.00 g/mL):
a - it will float on top
b - it will sink to the bottom
c - the mixture will improve the sunning of the motor
d - none of these
it will float on top
A battery operated power tool, such as cordless drill, converts
a - mechanical energy to thermal energy
b - thermal energy to mechanical energy
c - therman energy to chemical energy
d - chemical energy to mechanical energy
chemical energy to mechanical energy
1 kg = 2.205 lb; 1 lb = 16 oz. How many kilograms are prewsent in 125 ounces?
125 oz/1 x 1 lb/16 oz x 1/kg/2.205 lb = 125/35.28 = 3.54 kg
A rectangle block has dimensions 2.9 cm x 3.5 cm x 10.0 cm. The density of the block is 3.51 g/cm3. What is the mass of the block? (d=m/v)
d = 3.5 g/cm3 =
m?/v+2.9 cm x 3.5 cm x 10.0 cm = 3.56265
m = 3.6 x 10e7 g
Which of the following groups of the periodic table contains no metallic elements?
a - 4A
b - 5A
c - 6A
d - 7A
7A
An alkaline earth metal, a halogen, a transition metal and a noble gas are in the order:
a - Na, Cl, Fe, Ar
b - Ba, Br, Mn, Ar
c - Ba, N, Fe, He
d - Ba Br, Pb, Ne
Ba, Br, Mn Ar
Which three elements are likely to have similar cheical and physical properties?
a - nitrogen, oxygen, and neon
b - sodium, magnesium and aluminum
c - nickel, copper and zinc
d - oxygen, sulfur and selenium
oxygen, sulfur, selenium
How many electrons can be accommodated in the 3rd shell?
a - 8
b - 10
c - 18
d - 32
18
How many valence electrons are in the sulfur atom?
a 2
b 4
c 6
d 16
6
A student is preparing a sugar water solution to make rock candy. When the student continues to add sugar to the solution no additional sugar dissolves. Which kind of solution does the student have?
saturated solution
Which of the following solute will not dissolve in water?
a - KCl
b - MgCl2
c - HCl
d - CCl4
CCl4
A cucumber is placed in a concentrated salt solution. What will most likely happen?
a - wter will flow from the cucumber to the solution
b - water will flow from the solution to the cucumber
c - salt will flow into the cucumber
d - salt will precipitate out
Water will flow from the cucumber
Which of the following is the conjugate acid of NH3?
a. H+
b. H3O+
c NH2-
d. NH4+
NH4+
Which of the following solutions has the highest pH? a 0.1 M HCl
b 0.2 M HCl
c. pure H20
d 0.1 M NaOH
e. 0.2 M NaOH
0.2 M NaOH
What is the mass of salt in a 400 gram sample of salt water which is 2.50% (w/W)?
400 g x 015/1 g = 6.00 g salt
How many mL of pur alcohol are in 200 ml glass of wine that is 12% alcohol by volume. How much watrre is added?
12% (v/v)
volume of solution = 200mL
12% = X mL solute (alcohol)/200 L wine X 100
x = 12/200/100 x 100
x = 24 mL alcohol
200 -24 = 176 mL H20
a 50.0 g sample of a saline solution contains 1.75 g of NaCl. What is the % by weight concentration? (w/w)
1.75 grams solute/50.0 grams solution x 100 = 3.50% w/w
What is the mass of hydrogen peroxide in 250 grams of a 3.0% by weight solution? w/w
grams of solute/grams of solution x 100
3.0% = x grams of hydrogen peroxide / 250 grms solution x 100
x = 3.0x250/100 = 750/100 = 7.5 grms hydrogen peroxide
Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 5.844 g of NaCl in enough water to make a 200.0 mL solution.
molarity = moles solute/volume of solution
5.844 g x 1 mol/58.44 (molar mass)g = 0.100 mol
0.1000 ol/.200 L - .500 mol/L or .50 M
Calculate the moles of NaOH present in 500.0 mL of 0.25 M NaOH.
.25 M NaOH = x moles solute/.50 L = 0.13 mol NaOH
0.25 mol x .5000 L = 0.13 mol
Calculate the volume of 0.5 m HCl that would contain 2.0 mol HCl
0.5 mol/L = 2.0 mol HCl/X = 2.0 ol/.5 mol/L = 4L
2.0 mol HCl/5 ol HCl vol (L) = 4.L