Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Aqueous Solution
Acids and Bases in Water
Homogeneous Solutions
can't see parts
ACID
Proton H+ Donor
BASE
Proton H+ Acceptor
Strong Acid
In water ionizes to 100%
Weak Acid
in water ionizes to less than 100%
Acetic Acid
about 4 or 5%
Di and Tri Protic Acids
weak acids
Common Ion Effect
System at Equilibrium is stressed with an ion that is common to the substance being ionized
Buffer
mix of a weak acid and the salt of a weak acid. Reduces stress of addition of acid or base to solution
pKa
must be within +/- ONE unit of the pH of the solution
Titration
Take volume of acid & add volumes of base until endpoint
Phenalthaline
turning pink indicates neutralization point
Chemical Thermodynamics
You can convert energy from one for to another, but it cannot be destroyed
Spontaneous Process
Happens without any outside help
Non-Spontaneous
Doesn't happen by itself
(ex: picking a ball up)
Reversible
can go back under the same conditions
Irreversible
cannot go back
Ice-O-Thermal
Happens at a constant temperature
Entropy
-measures the disorder of a system
-"S"
-2nd law of thermodynamics
System
Any part of the universe that you describe as being part of the system
Surroundings
Everything outside of the system
Fusion
Process where something melts
3 conditions for determining sign of delta S
Temperature
Volume
# of Particles
If the gases are formed from gasses or liquids,
the values are POSITIVE
If a liquid or solution is formed from a solid,
there is a greater DISORDER
If the # of gas molecules increases in a reaction,
there is a greater DISORDER
Pure crystalline substance at 0 degrees has an entropy value of
zero
Increase in temp
causes increase in entropy pos. value, or an increase in disorder
Free Energy
the energy that is available to do work
Delta G degrees (-)
Reaction spontaneous in forward direction
Delta G degrees (0)
System at equilibrium
Delta G degrees (+)
non-spontaneous in forward direction, but spontaneous in reverse direction